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photo montage of herbal medicine

Collected Abstracts: Dan Shen/Radix Salvia

Bai YR, Wang SZ. Hemodynamic study on nitroglycerin compared with Salvia miltiorrhiza.Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1994 Jan;14(1):24-5, 4
Abstract:  This report investigated the hemodynamic changes of both nitroglycerin and Salvia miltiorrhiza (Co.) concerning pulmonary capillary-wedge (PCW), mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP), cardiac output (CO), cardiac index (CI), systemic mean pressure (SMP), and heart rate (HR). In 20 patients with heart diseases of normal cardiac function, nitroglycerin were compared with Salvia miltiorrhiza (Co.) using Swan-Ganz Catheter, which were self-compared. Result: (1) Both drugs had the similar vaso-dilating effects, reduced the filling pressure of left ventricle and increased the cardiac output but different in the time of appearance and duration, particularly concerning CO and CI. (2) The effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Co.) was markedly superior to the nitroglycerin. The action of former was more persistent and the improvement of cardiac function was better than that of latter.

 
 
Cao EH, Liu XQ, Wang JJ, Xu NF.  Effect of natural antioxidant tanshinone II-A on DNA damage by lipid peroxidation in liver cells. Free Radic Biol Med 1996;20(6):801-6
Abstract:  Tanshinone II-A (TSII-A) isolated from the root of Salvia miltorrhiza Bunge, a traditional medicine in China, is a derivative of phenanthrenequinone, which is known to have antioxidant properties. In the present study, effects of TSII-A on DNA damage by lipid peroxidation were investigated using liver cells, labeled with [3H] arachidonic acid, in the presence of FeCl2-DTPA. The results show that the nuclear DNA isolated from treated cells had higher radioactivity compared to controls and the radioactivity increased with longer incubation times. Purified lipid-DNA adducts had a characteristic fluorescent spectra and showed a decrease of hyperchromicity and melting point. TSII-A could inhibit the association of peroxidation products with DNA in liver cells and prevent a decrease in cell viability and in the the activity of O6-methylguanine acceptor protein with increasing incubation time. Compared with other antioxidants, TSII-A had a higher inhibitory ratio, which was similar to vitamin E and butylated hydroxy-toluene (BHT), but markedly stronger than NaN3, mannatol, and superoxide dismutase (SOD). These data suggest that TSII-A represents a new and effective antioxidant that inhibits the association of lipid peroxidation products with DNA. Its protective effect may be through breaking the chain reactions of peroxidation by scavenging lipid free radicals, thereby decreasing their cytotoxicity.
 
 

Chen CP, Yokozawa T, Chung HY.  Inhibitory effect of caffeic acid analogues isolated from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical.Exp Toxicol Pathol 1999 Jan;51(1):59-63
Abstract:  Caffeic acid and its four polymers isolated from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix were examined for their activity of scavenging free radicals in a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical generating system. The results showed that the polymers of caffeic acid inhibited the DPPH radical more strongly than caffeic acid. The strongest activity was displayed by two tetramers, lithospermic acid B and its Mg2+ salt. The trimer (lithospermic acid) and dimer (rosmarinic acid) showed similar efficiency. In comparison, caffeic acid was less efficient in scavenging free radicals. Determination of the activity of caffeic acid derivatives of small molecules revealed that the o-dihydroxyl group was the most important active structure of caffeic acid derivatives for scavenging of free radicals. Lack or substitution of this structure resulted in marked reduction or even loss of the activity. Structural modification of the side chain of caffeic acid produced slight changes in activity. The present results demonstrate that a saturated group connected to the aromatic ring has slightly higher inhibitory activity against the DPPH radical than an unsaturated group.
 
 

 
Deng H, Ma X, Xu R, Chen X, Zhao Y, Yin L, Han D.  Mechanisms of protective action of radix Salviae miltiorrhizae (RSM) against experimental hepatic injury in rats.Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih 1992 Apr;17(4):233-6, inside backcover
Abstract:  The results indicated that RSM could significantly inhibit the lipid peroxidation of normal livers and cultured hepatocytes of rats, induce liver microsomal cytochrome P450 in normal rats, increase nucleic acids, proteins, urea and cerolloplasmin of damaged cultured hepatocytes of rats, relieve ultrastructural damage of cultured hepatocytes induced by CCl4. The pharmacological actions mentioned above should be considered as important mechanisms of RSM against liver injury.
 
 

Ding Y, Soma S, Takano-Yamamoto T, Matsumoto S, Sakuda M.  Effects of salvia miltiorrhiza bunge (SMB) on MC3T3-E1 cells. J Osaka Univ Dent Sch 1995 Dec;35:21-7
Abstract:  In previous research, we found that the Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bunge (SMB), a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, accelerates orthodontic tooth movement. In the present study, to characterize the actions of SMB on bone remodeling, we investigated the effect of SMB on DNA synthesis and alkaline phosphatase activity of murine osteoblast like cell-clone, MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro. Treatment of the cells with SMB for 72 hours caused significant increase in ALPase activity. It was found that SMB increased ALPase activity in a dose-dependent manner, and up to maximum at the concentration of 5.0 mg/ml. At that concentration, ALPase activity was about 135% greater than that of control. SMB at 5.0 mg/ml significantly stimulated ALPase activity of the cells in multilayer on day 8 or calcification stage on day 16, but inhibited it in the sparse stage on day 2 or subconfluency stage on day 4. SMB had no effect on DNA synthesis in any stage of culture. ALPase activity significantly increased at 48 hours and was up to 300% greater than that of control activity at 96 hours. These findings suggest that SMB directly stimulates ALPase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells in multilayer stage or calcification stage without any effect on proliferation. Locally administrated SMB may affect the differentiation of osteoblasts in vivo.
 
 
 
Du G, Zhang J.  Protective effects of salvianolic acid A against impairment of memory induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in mice.Chin Med J (Engl) 1997 Jan;110(1):65-8
Abstract:  OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effects of Salvianolic acid A against impairment of memory induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in mice and the relationship between antioxidant activity of salvianolic acid A and its protective effects on brain injury caused by reperfusion. METHODS: Step down and step through tests were used to examine the function of memory in the model of impairment of memory induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in mice. RESULTS: Salvianolic acid A (Sal A) at the dosage of 3 and 10 mg.kg-1 i.v. could improve the impaired memory function induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion as shown in step down and step through tests. In step down tests, the mean number of errors of Sal A 3 and 10 mg.kg-1 treated group were 1.29, 1.15 and that of control group was 3.8 (P < 0.01). The latencies of these tests were longer than those of the control group. Meanwhile, 3 and 10 mg.kg of Sal A i.v. were found to reduce the malondialdehyde contents in the cortex, hippocampus and corpus striatum of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rat in vivo. Sal A 10-100 nmol.L-1 was also shown to inhibit lipid-peroxidation of the brain and scavenge the free hydroxyl radicals in vitro. CONCLUSION: These indicate that the ameliorating effect of Sal A on learning and memory impairment caused by cerebral ischemia reperfusion may be related to its anti-oxidant activity.
 

 
 
Feng CS.  Prophylactic effects of Salvia miltiorrhizae and ligustrazine on experimental respiratory distress syndrome induced by oleic acid in rats.Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1989 Apr;9(4):220-2, 198
Abstract:  The prophylactic effects of Salvia miltiorrhizae and ligustrazine on experimental respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in Wistar rats were observed and compared with the dexamethasone. Sixty-two male rats weighing 194.68 +/- 20.40 g (M +/- SD) were used in this experiment. The rats were randomly divided into five (A-E) groups. Group A was given normal saline 0.1 ml/kg alone and group B oleic acid 0.1 ml/kg; both were injected in tail vein, and the latter produced typical RDS. Group C, D, E were injected intraperitoneally with agents of dexamethasone 2 mg/kg, Salvia miltiorrhizae 1.5 g/kg, and ligustrazine 20mg/kg, respectively, 15 minutes before oleic acid intravenous injection. All of the animals were sacrificed quickly 6 hours after injections and lung tissues were taken and examined with light and electronic microscope. The results showed that all of these medicines could minimize the lesions caused by oleic acid. Lung/body index was reduced. Prophylactic effects of Salvia miltiorrhizae and ligustrazine were similar to dexamethasone. The authors considered that preventive use of Salvia miltiorrhizae or ligustrazine could protect the lung from the development of RDS.
 
 

Gu ZP, Ma CX, Zhang BX.  The effects of injection salviae miltiorrhizae in preventing and treating fat embolism syndrome.Chung Hua Wai Ko Tsa Chih 1994 Nov;32(11):692-5
Abstract:  This study was to examine the effects and mechanisms of injectio salviae miltiorrhizae (ISM) in preventing and treating fat embolism syndrome (FES), which was simulated by intravenous injection of homologous bone marrow fat in 16 dogs. PaO2, free fatty acids (FFAs), TXA2/PGI2, SOD/MDA were measured in different times combined with X-ray, conjunctiva microcirculation observation, radioisotope scanning and histologic examination. It was found that in the control group there were a significant fall in PaO alpha and rise in FFAs and MDA; blood clot stained with oil red O showed many fat droplets; radioisotope scanning revealed mild hypoperfusion or perfusion defects. In the treatment group, arterial oxygen levels were maintained, serum level of FFAS and MDA was reduced significantly. It is concluded that there is damage induced by oxygen-derived radicals in FES, LSM is an effective therapy for the FES, and 99mTc radioisotope scanning is a promising technique for noninvasive identification of FES in the early stage.
 
 
 

Hu MZ.  Effect of radix salviae miltiorrhizae on the mitotic activity of osteoblast-like cells isolated from chicken embryo calvariae cultured in vitro.Chung Hua Wai Ko Tsa Chih 1993 Abstract:  Chicken embryo calvariae cultured in vitro, could yield 3 types of osteoblast-like cells, which differed in morphology. They were the spindle-shaped cells, globular cells, and squamous cells. Of these, the squamous cell was the chief cellular component, while both the spindle-shaped cells and the globular cells gradually transformed into squamous cells. Administration of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae rendered more rapid growth of the osteoblast-like cells in the early stage of culture. After 17-day of culture, when both the control group cells and the treated, group cells became quite confluent, 3H-Thymidine labelling and radioautographic study revealed a very statistically significant increase in the number of cells, bearing silver grains over the nucleus area in the treated group, as compared with the control (P < 0.001). Since osteoblasts play a pivotal role in fracture healing, administration of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae can exert favourable influence on bone repair through increasing the number of osteoblasts.
 
 

Hu Y, Ge Y, Zhang Y, Liu J, Li X, Liu Q.  Treatment of 100 cases of nerve deafness with injectio radix salviae miltiorrhizae. J Tradit Chin Med 1992 Dec;12(4):256-8
Abstract:  100 cases of nerve deafness were treated with Injectio Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae by i.v. drip, and additional drugs that promoted blood circulation were used according to symptom differentiation. Results were 28 cases cured, 45 cases improved, and 27 cases failed, for a total effective rate of 73%.
 
 

Wei ZM.  Effects of injection Salviae miltiorrhizae on senile chronic asthmatic bronchitis patients.Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1996 Jul;16(7):402-4
Abstract:  The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of Injection Salviae Miltiorrhizae on the senile patients suffering from chronic asthmatic bronchitis. Fifty-three patients were divided randomly into group A(treated group, 33 cases) and group B(control group, 20 cases). The results showed that in group A, the treatment could ameliorate the symptoms, improve the pulmonary function, lower the PaCO2, elevate the PaO2 and enhance the immune function. They were markedly effective in 26 cases, effective in 6 cases and ineffective in 1 case. The cases in control group were 11, 8, 1 and 95% respectively. There was a significant difference between the effectiveness of the two groups.

Publication Types:

  • Clinical trial

  • Randomized controlled trial
 

Kuang P, Tao Y, Tian Y.  Effect of radix Salviae miltiorrhizae on nitric oxide in cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury.J Tradit Chin Med 1996 Sep;16(3):224-7

Abstract:  It has been postulated that nitric oxide (NO) is produced in significant amount on reperfusion of ischemic brain and could cause brain edema and cell death. This study was undertaken in an attempt to determine whether Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM) could reduce cerebral NO contents in 4-vessel occlusion rat model after 30 min of global ischemia and 15 min of reperfusion. There was a significant increase in cerebral NO level in untreated animals as compared with sham-operated ones. By pretreatment with RSM the cerebral NO concentration was reduced to normal level. The possibilities of neuroprotective role of RSM in cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury were discussed.

Kuang P, Tao Y, Shi J.  Effect of radix Salviae miltiorrhizae on extracellular adenosine and evaluation of its protective efficacy in ischemic reperfusion rat--microdialysis, HPLC and histopathologic studies.

J Tradit Chin Med 1997 Jun;17(2):140-7

Abstract:  The effects of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM) on extracellular adenosine (Ade) and its metabolites, i.e. inosine, hypoxanthine and xanthine, were studied with microdialysis and HPLC techniques during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion induced by 4-vessel occlusion in rat brain. Histological examination of hippocampus was performed 6 h after reperfusion. ECF (extracellular fluid) adenosine and its metabolites were compared between the controls (n = 6) and RSM-treated rats (n = 6). Basal level of Ade and its metabolites release were not greatly affected by pretreatment with RSM, and no significant difference as compared with the sham-operated (n = 6). Ade and its metabolites were dramatically increased after ischemia, and decreased near basal-level and its metabolites remained high at the end of reperfusion. In the RSM-treated animals, the tendency of changes of Ade and its metabolites was just the same as in the controls, but the magnitudes of changes were significantly lower at some different time points. In sham-operated animals, no changes were observed at different time points both during ischemia (30 min.) and reperfusion (60 min.). Histopathological findings demonstrated that RSM pretreatment results in better histologic preservation of the pyramidal cells in the postischemic reperfusion CA1 sector both qualitatively and quantitatively. These results indicated that RSM protects against cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury.
 
 

Kuang P, Tao Y, Tian Y.  Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae treatment results in decreased lipid peroxidation in reperfusion injury.J Tradit Chin Med 1996 Jun;16(2):138-42
Abstract:  In our pervious investigations we have found that Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM) can reduce neurological deficits and ameliorate cellular damages, and its protective actions are associated with its effects on cerebral edema, monoamines, neuropeptides, neurotransmitter aminoacids, thromboxane A2, peroxidation and down-regulation of c-fos gene expression in ischemic animals. The purpose of present study was to investigate the protective effect of RSM against lipid peroxidation in 4-vessel occlusion and reperfusion rat model. We found that in RSM-treated rats the cerebral SOD activity is significantly increased, while the cerebral MDA level is significantly decreased when compared with untreated animals. The results suggested that RSM can reduce the lipid peroxidation and afford cerebroprotection against reperfusion injury.
 
 

Kuang P, Wu W, Zhu K.  Evidence for amelioration of cellular damage in ischemic rat brain by radix salviae miltiorrhizae treatment--immunocytochemistry and histopathology studies.J Tradit Chin Med 1993 Mar;13(1):38-41
Abstract:  The changes of somatostatin (SS)--like immunoreactive cells and morphology were observed in the models of ligation of right MCA and bilateral ligation of CCA respectively. The results showed: (1) a decline of SS immunoreactive nerve cell profiles in right cerebral cortex after 3h ligation of MCA as compared with left cerebral cortex and sham-operated group, while no significant difference was found between RSM-treated and saline-treated groups; (2) selective ischemic cell changes in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and caudate nucleus after 3h ligation of CCA. The changes included shrinkage and condensation of perikaryon, nuclear pyknosis, cytoplasmic eosinophilia in some neurons. The ischemic changes were more severe in saline-treated group than RSM-treated group. The experiments indicated that the selective ischemic cell changes could be improved by RSM, suggesting that treatment to modulate SS metabolism may be indicated after ischemic insults.
 
 

Lei XL, Chiou GC.  Cardiovascular pharmacology of Panax notoginseng (Burk) F.H. Chen and Salvia miltiorrhiza. Am J Chin Med 1986;14(3-4):145-52 Abstract:  The cardiovascular pharmacology of two Chinese herbs, Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) and Panax notoginseng (Burk) F. H. Chen (PNG) were studied both in vivo and in vitro. Extracts of both herbs suppressed systemic blood pressure in albino rats and rabbits, an effect which was blocked or reversed by atropine, propranolol, and chlorpheniramine plus cimetidine. This reversed hypertension was blocked by phenoxybenzamine. These results indicate that these herbs have multiple effector sites in the cardiovascular system. This could be due to an increased utilization of extracellular calcium ions since the activity of SM on isolated blood vessels of rabbits was enhanced by 2 mM Ca++. The effects of aqueous extract of SM and purified active principles of SM (tanshinones) on rat and rabbit blood vessels in vitro were very similar both qualitatively and quantitatively. Both caused vasodilation of coronary arteries at all concentrations tested but induced vasodilation of renal, mesenteric and femoral arteries only at low concentrations. At higher concentrations, vasoconstriction was induced in these vessels. These results indicate that an economical decoction of SM is as efficacious as the more expensive isolated tanshinones. Both SM and PNG would be useful as antianginal agents since they dilate coronary vessels. Their use in hypertension is questionable since they induce both vasodilation and vasoconstriction depending on dose and target vessel.
 
 

Lei XL, Chiou GC.  Studies on cardiovascular actions of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Am J Chin Med 1986;14(1-2):26-32

Abstract:  Cardiovascular actions of S. miltiorrhiza (SM) were studied on systemic blood pressure in the rat. Langendorff cardiac preparation in the guinea pig, and four types of vasculature in the dog, including coronary, renal, femoral, and mesenteric arteries. SM induced dose-related hypotension without changing heart rate. The hypotension was antagonized by atropine, propranolol, and chlorpheniramine plus cimetidine. In the isolated whole-heart preparation, SM increased coronary blood flow significantly for 15 min and positive inotropic action for 3 min after pulse injection. SM relaxed all arteries at low concentration (3.0 mg/ml) and contracted all but the coronary artery at higher concentration (10.0 mg/ml). The coronary artery relaxed at all doses of SM tested.
 
 

Li X, Yao X, Li T.  Effects of radix Salviae miltiorrhizae on hemodynamics of portal hypertension: clinical and experimental study. Chung Hua Nei Ko Tsa Chih 1997 Jul;36(7):450-3

Abstract:  By measuring portal pressure of hepatocirrhotic dogs of bile duct ligation directly, and detecting portal system flow in patients with hepatic cirrhosis by ultrasound doppler, we studied the portal hemodynamic effects of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM). After intravenous administration of RSM in hepatocirrhotic dogs, the portal venous pressure (PPV), wedge hepatic venous pressure (WHVP), and hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) were significantly decreased (P < 0.05-0.01), but the mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) unchanged (P > 0.05). After long-term administration of RSM (10-12 weeks), the diameter of portal vein (DPV) and splenic vein (DSV), the flow of portal vein (QPV), and splenic vein (QSV) in patients with hepatic cirrhosis were significantly decreased respectively (P < 0.05-0.001). Hypodynamia, abdominal distension, anorexia and liver function (ALT) were improved partially after administration of RSM in patients with hepatic cirrhosis. Side-effects of RSM were not found. The results demonstrated that RSM is an effective drug of depressing portal pressure with few side-effects.
 
 

Li CP, Yung KH, Chiu KW.  Hypotensive action of Salvia miltiorrhiza cell culture extract. Am J Chin Med 1990;18(3-4):157-66

Abstract:  Salvia miltiorrhiza cell culture extract (SCE) was shown to produce dose-dependent hypotensive response in normo-tensive rats. The mode of this hypotensive action was studied both in vivo and in vitro. This vasodepressor effect was not due to the presence of cations (potassium, calcium and magnesium) in the extract. In pharmacological antagonist studies, the hypotensive effect was shown not being mediated via the alpha-, beta-adrenoceptors, histamine receptors and autonomic ganglion; nor via direct vasodilation and diuresis. However, the vasodepressor effect was probably angiotensin- and/or bradykinin-related since captopril infusion potentiated the hypotensive effect of SCE. Furthermore, data indicated that the vasodepressor effect might be accounted for by the positive inotropic and negative chronotropic effects of SCE, the latter via its modulation of cholinergic activity.
 
 

Liu SY, Xu YY, Zhu JY.  The effects of Salvia miltiorrhizae Bge and Ligustrazine on thromboxane A2 and prostacyclin in pregnancy induced hypertension.Chung Hua Fu Chan Ko Tsa Chih 1994 Nov;29(11):648-50, 697

Abstract:  The clinical efficiency and mechanism of traditional Chinese medicinal herb Salvia Miltiorrhizae Bge (SMB) and Ligustrazine (L) on pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) were studied in 30 patients. Before and after the administration of SMB and L, the following parameters: mean arterial pressure (MAP), proteinuria, levels of Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and Prostacyclin (PGI2) were observed. TXA2 and PGI2 were measured by their stable hydration products Thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) by an established radioimmunoassay. The results of treatment were compared with the base line values and showed as follows: MAP and proteinuria decreased significantly (P < 0.05); no marked difference existed in TXB2; the level of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha increased significantly (P < 0.05); the rate of TXB2/6-keto-PGF1 alpha decreased significantly (P < 0.05). The results suggested that SMB and L can invigorate blood circulation by decreasing vasoconstriction.
 
 

Liu J, Kuang P, Wu W, Zhang F, Liu J, Wan F, Huang Y, Ding A.
Tradit Chin Med 1998 Mar;18(1):49-54

Abstract:  Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM), a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has been used to improve blood circulation and resolve blood stasis. We have previously found that RSM has neuroprotective effect on ischemia and/or ischemia-reperfusion rats. The purpose of this study was to obtain further information on the mechanism of the RSM-induced neuroprotection and to examine the neuroprotective effect on neurons exposed to anoxia. The effect of RSM on anoxic damage in cultured hippocampal neurons of neonatal rat was investigated by using morphological changes and heat shock protein 70 kD (HSP70) expression as indicators. RSM given 0.5 h before 2 h-anoxia followed by 48 hours reoxygenation could significantly increase survival rate of hippocampal neurons and number of HSP70 positive cells. The results suggest that RSM has a direct neuroprotective effects on anoxic damage in hippocampal neurons.
 
 

Liu J, Hua G, Liu W, Cui Y, Huang H, Zhao S, Chu Y, Yang C, Chen W.  The effect of IH764-3 on fibroblast proliferation and function.Chin Med Sci J 1992 Sep;7(3):142-7

Abstract:  The effect of IH764-3, a potent component isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza, on the proliferation and function of cultured fibroblasts was studied. It was found that the fibroblast growth curve had a dose-dependent relationship with IH764-3 concentration. The incorporation of 3H-TdR and 3H-proline into fibroblasts was significantly inhibited by IH764-3, and calmodulin, fibronectin and thrombospondin contents in the test group were obviously lower than those in the control group. Flow cytometry showed that in the IH764-3-treated group, the percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase was higher than that in the control. Electron microscopic observation (TEM and SEM) showed that in the treated group, collagen secretion was decreased. All of these results indicate that IH764-3 exerts a direct inhibitory effect on fibroblast proliferation and affects their ability to synthesize collagen.
 
 

Liu J.  The effect of IH764-3 on proliferation and function of fibroblasts.Chung Kuo I Hsueh Ko Hsueh Yuan Hsueh Pao 1993 Jun;15(3):201-5

Abstract:  IH764-3, a potent component isolated from Salviae miltiorrhizae (a component of TML) was used to study the effect on proliferation and functions of cultured fibroblasts. The fibroblast growth curve demonstrated a dose-dependent relationship between growth and IH764-3 concentration. The incorporation of 3H-TdR and 3H-proline into fibroblasts was significantly inhibited by IH764-3. Calmodulin level, fibronectin and thrombospondin contents in the test group were obviously lower than those in the control group. Flow-cytometry showed that in the IH764-3 treated group, the percentage of cells in G0 + G1 phase was higher than that in the control. Electron microscopic observation (TEM and SEM) showed that in the treated group, the secretory function of collagen had decreased. All the results indicated that IH764-3 exerts a direct inhibitory effect on fibroblast proliferation and affects their ability to synthesize and secrete collagenous substances.
 
 

Liu C, Shi W, Sun L, Zheng Q.  Effects of radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae on visceral pain discharges in the posterior nucleus of the thalamus in cats.Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih 1990 Feb;15(2):112-5, 128
Abstract:  Extracellular microelectrode method and stereotaxic technique of brain were used to investigate the effects of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae on the discharges of visceral pain in the posterior nucleus of thalamus(po)in cats. Experiments showed that Radix Salvia Miltiorrhizae inhibited the discharges of visceral pain in po, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae acts directly on the peripheral nerve trunk and cannot block its exciting conduction. This suggests that the analgesic effect of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae is exerted via central nervous system.
 
 

Lu Q, Shi C, Wu Z.  An experimental and clinical study on radix Salviae miltiorrhiae in the treatment of hepatocellular Ca2+ overload during hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury.Chung Hua Wai Ko Tsa Chih 1996 Feb;34(2):98-101

Abstract:  In recent years there has been considerable interest concerning the role of hepatocellular Ca2+ overload which probably was a major factor in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. We studied the effect of radix salviae miltiorrhizae (RSM) on cytosolic free calciumion concentration [(Ca2+)i](nM) in isolated hepatocytes in rats and patients with ischemia reperfusion by microflurometry using fluorescent (Ca2+)i indicator Fura-2/AM. Changes of lipid peroxide free radical (ROO.) signal ranges with in the liver tissue by ESR technique and those of hepatocellular ultrastructure by electronmicroscope were also observed. The results showed that RSM reduced levels of (Ca2+)i and ROO. Ymax (mm) ESR signal rangs. RSM had an effect on protecting hepatocytes against ischemia/reperfusion injury as a useful receptor-operated calcium channels (ROC) blocker.
 
 

Luo JA, Peng YM, Xia YC, Lei Y.  Therapeutic effects of Chinese drugs on early renal damage of rats caused by fish bile. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1993 Feb;13(2):98-9, 70

Abstract:  The therapeutic effects of Salvia miltiorrhizae, Typha angustifolia, Rheum palmatum preparations on early renal damage of rats caused by fish bile were observed. These drugs were effective in reducing serum creatinine, urinary NAGase, count of necrosed epithelial cells of proximal tubule and that of glomerular filled with RBC in Bowman's space (P < 0.05), and also effective in increasing creatinine clearance (P < 0.05).
 
 

Meng XC, Hou JC, Jiang Y.  Salvia miltiorrhizae in the treatment of the viral myocarditis.Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1992 Jun;12(6):345-7, 324-5 Abstract:  In Order to evaluate the effect of Salvia miltiorrhizae (SM) on the acute viral myocarditis (AVM), 60 children with AVM were studied. The patients were divided in random into two groups, group 1 treated with vit. C, ATP, CoA (n = 30), group II with SM plus vit. C, ATP, CoA (n = 30). The levels of plasma lipid peroxide (LPO), erythrocyte membrane microviscosity (EMMV), LDH, CPK, GOT and ECG in each patient were determined before and after one course of treatments respectively. The results revealed that before treatment the levels of plasma LPO and EMMV in both groups increased significantly compared with those of normal controls (n = 30, P < 0.01) respectively. There was a close correlation between LPO and EMMV (r = 0.6774, P < 0.01) and a close correlation between LPO and LDH (r = 0.5703, P < 0.01). After one course, the levels of plasma LPO and EMMV in both groups decreased significantly (compared with those before treatment, P < 0.01, respectively). But the LPO level and EMMV in group I were much higher than those in normal controls yet (P < 0.05, respectively). And LDH, GOT and ECG in nearly half of the patients in group I did not recover after one course while most patients in group II recovered. The results suggested that free radical plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AVM. SM as a good antioxidant, could protect myocardium from repairing membrane damage and clearing away free radical. This provided a new approach to treatment of viral myocarditis.

Publication Types:

  • Clinical trial
  • Randomized controlled trial
 

Peng ZS, Rao RS, Gong ZF.  Clinical effects of perfusing drugs into hepatic artery to promote blood circulation in late stage of hepatocarcinoma.Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1993 Jun;13(6):330-2, 323

Abstract:  The sophisticated technology of hepatic artery catheterization was used since 1990 in treating exacerbated patient after chemotherapy, 4-8 ml Salvia miltiorrhizae composita injection with 20 ml of 10% glucose was used. The same Chinese herbal drug based on Syndrome Differentiation as well as Western drug to relieve the symptoms was used in both treated and control groups. After two treatment courses, the symptom of treated group was relieved, the tumor mass shrunk and the biochemical parameters improved, the total effective rate was 65%, while that of control group was 25%, the difference between two groups was very significant, P < 0.01. This result suggests that is one of effective methods which worth further investigation.

Publication Types:

  • Clinical trial
 
 
 
 

Qin JZ, Wang XC.  Effect of radix Salviae miltiorrhizae on calcium, zinc, copper content in serum, callus and bony tissue in early stage of healing process in rat closed tibial fracture. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1992 Jun;12(6):354-6, 325-6

Abstract:  Changes of calcium, zinc, copper contents in serum, callus and bony tissue in the early stage of the healing process of rat closed tibial fracture, also the changes of them with radix Salviae miltiorrhizae (RSM) treatment were studied. It was found that calcium, zinc contents and Zn/Cu ratio increased significantly and the rise of serum copper content was inhibited by the administration of RSM after fracture. Zn/Cu ratio in fracture callus was correlated to the calcium content in fracture callus. These findings suggested that the effect of the promotion of RSM on fracture healing was related to the increased zinc content in serum, also related to the acceleration of mobilization of zinc in fractured bone, and to the acceleration of fracture callus formation and mineralization process by the increased zinc and Zn/Cu ratio in the callus of the fracture.
 
 

Shao GF.  Changes in gerbil brain tissue following cerebral ischemia and postischemic reperfusion and studies of the effects of the Chinese drugs. Chung Hua Shen Ching Ching Shen Ko Tsa Chih 1992 Dec;25(6):347-50, 383-4

Abstract:  With the animal model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion, we conducted experiments on such model to study the effects of Ligustrazine(LZ) and Salvia Miltirrhizae(SM). The results obtained are as follows: (1) The ischemic brain showed hyperperfusion (congestion period) after 10 min reperfusion following 50 min of ischemia, and then entered a delayed hypoperfusion period after 60 minutes reperfusion and afterward the hypoperfusion was remained till the end of 120 min reperfusion. (2) Following 50 min of ischemic insult, ATP and glucose contents in brain tissue were almost depleted and much of lactate accumulated. Although rapid recovery of energy metabolism occurred within 60 min of reperfusion, a secondary deterioration emerged at 120 min of reperfusion. (3) Apparent brain edema occurred after cerebral ischemia and its further development was observed at the early stage of reperfusion owing to congestive response. Despite the degree of brain edema alleviated obviously after 60 min of reperfusion, the condition become worse at 120 min of reperfusion, which was accompanied by secondary metabolic deterioration. (4) Experimental results showed that LZ and SM could significantly elevate rCBF during the delayed hypoperfusion period, and limit the development of secondary deterioration in energy metabolism and brain edema after 120 min of reperfusion. (5) Notably, LZ and SM had no significant effect on MABP when these two Chinese drugs manifested their therapeutic actions in the animal model of cerebral ischemia.
 
 

Sun C, Chen D, Qu Z, Hao J, Wang J.  Protective effects of radix Salviae miltiorrhizae on azathioprine hepatotoxicity in rats.Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih 1996 Aug;21(8):496-8, 512

Abstract:  The changes of liver function and malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were studied in rats intoxicated with azathioprine (Aza) 15mg/(kg.d) and in rats treated with Aza mixed Salviae 8g/(kg.d). The results showed that in the Aza group, the levels of ALT, AKP, MDA increased and GSH decreased significantly in week 1 and week 2. But in the Salviae group the levels of ALT, AKP, MDA decreased and GSH increased significantly, approaching the normal levels, It follows that Salviae has protective effects on Aza hepatotoxicity in rats.
 
 

Sun B, Yuan Y, Zhang W, Che D.  Effects of hypoxic endothelial cell conditioned medium on proliferation and collagen synthesis of smooth muscle cells and inhibitory effects of radix salviae miltiorrhizae.Chin Med J (Engl) 1995 Nov;108(11):855-8
Abstract:  The effects of hypoxic endothelial cell conditioned medium (HECCM) on proliferation and collagen synthesis of cultured porcine pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were studied by 3H-thymidine (3H-TdR) and 3H-proline incorporations, image analysis for determination of DNA content and colorimetric assay using MTT, and the inhibitory effects of radix salviae miltiorrhizae (RSM) on them were also investigated. The results showed that HECCM could induce enhancement of the enzymatic activity of mitochondria, increase of the nucleic DNA content and increases of the 3H-TdR and 3H-proline incorporation in PASMCs. The 3H-proline incorporation in PASMCs cultured in HECCM was 1.83 times as much as that cultured in normoxic endothelial cell conditioned medium (NECCM). Compared with the control, Chinese herb medicine RSM could inhibit the proliferation of PASMCs cultured in HECCM and decrease the 3H-proline incorporation in PASMCs cultured in both HECCM and NECCM (P < 0.001). However, RSM had no effects on the nucleic DNA content and 3H-TdR incorporation into DNA of PASMCs cultured in NECCM. It suggests that hypoxia may stimulate the endothelia to synthesize and secrete some cytokines which can stimulate the proliferation and the synthesis of collagen of PASMCs and RSM can inhibit this process.
 
 

Tao YY.  Effects of Salvia miltiorrhizae compositae on phosphoinositides metabolism in acute myocardial ischemiaChung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1993 Jun;13(6):354-5, 326

Abstract:  The effects of Salvia miltiorrhizae compositae (SMC) on phosphoinositides metabolism of acute myocardial ischemia in rats were studied. The results showed that the function of the phosphoinositide signaling system was enhanced 10 min. after acute myocardial ischemia. Both of the accumulations of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate (PIP2) and inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) were higher than those of the non-ischemic control group (P < 0.01, n = 7). The rise of the levels of PIP2 and IP3 caused by acute myocardial ischemia was remarkably inhibited by the SMC (2g/kg body wt.), and the levels of PIP2 and IP3 were lower than those of the ischemic group (P < 0.01, n = 7).
 
 

Wang WC.  Effect of Salvia miltiorrhizae in the treatment of 36 infantile acute toxic myocarditis.Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1993 Nov;13(11):665-6, 645

Abstract:  Control observation of infantile acute toxic myocarditis treated by Salvia miltiorrhizae (SM) showed that 36 cases were clinically cured through SM treatment. The total effects have obvious advantages over Western Medicine control group, P < 0.01. The period of hospitalization and ECG normalization, of control group was significantly longer than that of SM treated group, P < 0.001 respectively.
 
 

Wang Z, Zhang H, You H. The effect of 764-3 on platelet aggregation and the activity of enzymes in arachidonic acid metabolism. Chung Kuo I Hsueh Ko Hsueh Yuan Hsueh Pao 1994 Apr;16(2):140-3
Abstract:  764-3 is a purified compound extracted from Chinese herb Salvia miltiorrhizae. It was found to inhibit human and rabbit platelet aggregation induced by AA or ADP. Using AA as the substrate and pig lung microsome to provide enzymes, low doses of 764-3 (5-100 micrograms/ml) promoted the generation of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha in a dose-dependent manner. At a dose of 500 micrograms/ml, both TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha production were inhibited. The results suggest that low dose of 764-3 may be able to bring a balance between TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha.

Kuang P, Xiang J.  Effect of radix salviae miltiorrhizae on EAA and IAA during cerebral ischemia in gerbils: a microdialysis study.J Tradit Chin Med 1994 Mar;14(1):45-50

Abstract:  The concentrations of amino acids (AA), stroke index and infarct area were determined in 26 gerbils which were divided into 3 groups: RSM-treated (n = 8), Saline-treated (n = 10) and sham-operated (n = 8). The levels of AA were measured with microdialysis technique in cerebral cortex. The concentrations of neurotransmitter AA, as Glu and GABA and Asp, were significantly increased during the first 60 min after CCA ligation, while the concentrations of non-neurotransmitter AA, as Thr and Ser, had no significant changes. In RSM-treated gerbils, the level of Glu was significantly lower than that of the saline-treated, but the GABA in RSM-treated was significantly higher than that of the saline-treated. The ratio of Glu/GABA was significantly decreased after ischemia. The RSM could improve the reduction of ratio of Glu/GABA during 0-30 min and 91-120 min after cerebral ischemia. There were statistically significant decrease in terms of stroke index in RSM-treated group when compared with saline-treated group at 24 h and 16 h after CCA ligation respectively. The RSM has a tendency to decrease the size of infarct area, but no statistical difference. The results suggest that the neurotransmitter AA involve in the pathophysiological procedures of cerebral ischemia and the RSM can attenuate dysfunctions of EAA and IAA. Furthermore, the results also imply that there may be an alternate way to treat cerebral ischemia by inhibiting the presynaptic releasing of Glu and stimulating the releasing of GABA.
 
 

Wang ZL.  Experimental study of preventing liver cirrhosis by using four kinds of Chinese herbs.Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1992 Jun;12(6):357-8

Abstract:  55 rats were divided into six groups; (1) normal control, (2) cirrhosis control, (3-6) Chinese herbs groups, 2-6 groups were liver cirrhosis model caused by combined factor dominated by CCl4, and 3-6 groups were given Chinese herbs simultaneously until the end of sixth week. Radix Salviae miltlorrhizae (RSM) were used in group 3, Flos Carthami (FC) in group 4, Radix Angelicae sinensis (RAS) in group 5, Semen persicae (SP) in group 6. The results: in group 2, 7 out of 9 rats developed into cirrhosis, the degree of fibrosis was 2.55+ and collagen protein content was 35.3 mg/g.liver, SGPT 387u. In group 3(RSM), no cirrhosis was found, the degree of the fibrosis was 0.43+ (compared with group 2, P < 0.01, collagen protein content was 16.7 mg/g.liver (P < 0.01), SGPT 132u (P < 0.01). In group 4(FC), 8 out of 9 rats did not develop into cirrhosis, collagen content 21.1 mg/g.liver, compared with group 2, P < 0.05. In the group of 5 and 6, some rats were developed into cirrhosis. The result showed that RSM and FC possessed an inhibitory effect on fibrogenesis. The effect of RSM was remarkable. It could prevent experimental cirrhosis. The effect of RAS and SP were uncertain. This experiment predicted that RAM would become the promising drug to restrain chronic hepatic disease from developing into cirrhosis clinically.
 
 

Wang L, Huang X, Ding Z, Chen H, Peng R, Yuan G, Zhou D.  The effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza and polysaccharide sulphate on the adhesion of erythrocytes of the patients with cerebral thrombosis to cultured endothelial cells. Hua Hsi I Ko Ta Hsueh Hsueh Pao 1995 Dec;26(4):381-5

Abstract:  Salvia miltiorrhiza and polysaccharide sulphate are commonly prescribed for curing cerebral vascular diseases. In this study, we found that the adhesion of erythrocytes of the patients with cerebral thrombosis to cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells was decreased in number and intensity after the erythrocytes were treated with salvia miltiorrhiza and polysaccharide sulphate in flow field. Moreover we found that polysaccharide sulphate was more effective than salvia miltiorrhiza in preventing adherence in common doses. The two drugs' effects of preventing adherence might be an important mechanism for curing the patients with cerebral thrombosis.
 
 

Wang RQ, Chen JZ, Ren GY. Intraperitoneal perfusion of compound injection of salvia miltiorrhiza with dachengqi decoction in treating adhesive intestinal obstruction.Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1994 Oct;14(10):595-7

Abstract:  47 cases of adhesive intestinal obstruction after decompression operation were treated with intraperitoneal perfusion of compound injection of Salvia Miltiorrhizam intraperitoneally before closing the abdominal cavity and Dachengqi decoction oral given post-operatively. Follow up study for 2-9 years showed the effective rate was 100% except one case died of other unrelevant disease. Another 38 cases of the same disease and same operation procedure were selected as the control group, which were given antibiotics intraperitoneally before closing the abdominal cavity. The effective rate was 73.38%. The result in the therapeutic group was significantly better than that in the control group (P < 0.01).

Publication Types:

  • Clinical trial

  • Controlled clinical trial
 

 
Wang Z, Roberts JM, Grant PG, Colman RW, Schreiber AD.  The effect of a medicinal Chinese herb on platelet function.Thromb Haemost 1982 Dec 27;48(3):301-6

Abstract:  We investigated the effect of the Chinese herb Injectio Salvia Miltiorrhizae (ISM) on human platelet function in vitro. ISM inhibited platelet aggregation and serotonin release induced by either ADP or epinephrine in a dose dependent manner. This effect of ISM was observed with both gel-filtered platelets (ID50 = 8-30 micrograms ISM/ml gel-filtered platelets) and platelets in plasma (ID50 = 400-900 micrograms ISM/ml of platelet-rich plasma). The active molecule(s) in ISM was heat stable, resistant to acid, base and proteolysis and fractionated on Sephadex 6-25 at MW approximately 280. ISM did not interact with the platelet alpha-adrenergic receptor, but increased cAMP in intact platelets. The results are consistent with the concept that ISM inhibition of platelet aggregation and release is mediated by an increase in platelet cAMP. The exact mechanism whereby ISM increases platelet cAMP appears to be that of inhibition of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. The effect of ISM on platelet function is one mechanism which might explain the therapeutic effect of ISM in experimental and clinical coronary artery disease.
 
 

Wasser S, Ho JM, Ang HK, Tan CE.
Salvia miltiorrhiza reduces experimentally-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.J Hepatol 1998 Nov;29(5):760-71

Abstract:  BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatic fibrosis occurs as a result of injury to the liver parenchyma and biliary system. We have studied the effect of the traditional Chinese medicinal herb, Salvia miltiorrhiza, in an experimental model of hepatic fibrosis and evaluated its effect on various paradigms involved in hepatic fibrosis. METHODS: Liver fibrosis was induced in male Wistar rats by chronic administration of carbon tetrachloride for 10 weeks. The carbon tetrachloride-treated rats were randomly assigned to three groups: no treatment, Salvia for 12 weeks from the onset of carbon tetrachloride treatment, and Salvia for 2 weeks after the completion of the 10-week course. The normal control groups in the study were: neither carbon tetrachloride nor Salvia, and Salvia only for 12 weeks. The livers were graded histologically and analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the transcription of genes involved in liver fibrosis, namely, transforming growth factor-beta1 and the extracellular matrix components procollagens I and III, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-13. The transcripts were normalized against that of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: The histological evaluation showed that Salvia could reverse the fibrosis caused by carbon tetrachloride treatment. Rats treated with the herb had reduced levels of transforming growth factor-beta1, procollagens I and III and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 transcripts and an increased level of matrix metalloproteinase-13 transcript, when compared to the disease control. CONCLUSION: Salvia miltiorrhiza, a cheap and widely available herb, significantly reduces carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.
 
 

Wei XD, Li L, Bai J.  Effect of Salvia miltiorrhizae Composita on erythrocyte membrane phospholipid in patients with coronary heart diseaseChung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1997 Jun;17(6):336-8

Abstract:  OBJECTIVE: To investigate the function of phospholipid metabolism in pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD) and the effect of Salvia miltiorrhizae Composita (SMC) on it. METHODS: The levels of erythrocyte membrane phospholipid, blood lipid peroxide (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were determined in the patients with CHD by Thinlayer chromatography and fluorimetry during the treatment of SMC. RESULTS: Sphingomyelins (SM), phosphatidyl serine (PS), phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE) and lysophosphatide (LL) of erythrocyte membrane phospholipid were increased in patients with CHD. Phosphatidyl cholines (PC) was lower than control group. Among them, the ratios of SM/PC and PS/PC were significantly higher. In the patients with CHD, LPO was significantly increased and ratios of SOD/LPO and GSH-Px/LPO significantly decreased. After the treatment with SMC, LL, SM, PS and PE of erythrocyte phospholipid and the ratios of SM/PC and PS/PC and LPO were decreased. PC and SOD/LPO were increased. CONCLUSIONS: The abnormality of erythrocyte membrane phospholipid participate the occurrence and development of CHD. SMC might improve the abnormality of erythrocyte phospholipid and lipid peroxide and possess the effect of regulating phospholipid metabolism.
 
 

Wei ZM.  Effects of injection Salviae miltiorrhizae on senile chronic asthmatic bronchitis patients.Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1996 Jul;16(7):402-4

Abstract:  The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of Injection Salviae Miltiorrhizae on the senile patients suffering from chronic asthmatic bronchitis. Fifty-three patients were divided randomly into group A(treated group, 33 cases) and group B(control group, 20 cases). The results showed that in group A, the treatment could ameliorate the symptoms, improve the pulmonary function, lower the PaCO2, elevate the PaO2 and enhance the immune function. They were markedly effective in 26 cases, effective in 6 cases and ineffective in 1 case. The cases in control group were 11, 8, 1 and 95% respectively. There was a significant difference between the effectiveness of the two groups.

Publication Types:

  • Clinical trial

  • Randomized controlled trial

Wu W, Kuang P, Li Z.  ET-1 gene expression of rat brain during ischemia and reperfusion and the protective effect of radix Salviae miltiorrhizae. J Tradit Chin Med 1997 Mar;17(1):59-64 Abstract:  Endothelin-1 (ET-1) gene expression of rat brain during ischemia and reperfusion as well as the effect of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM) were studied with in situ hybridization. It was found that ET-1 gene expression of cerebral cortex and caudate-putamen was markedly increased both in 24 hours of ischemia and 24 hours of reperfusion groups (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). In RSM-treated rats, although the ET-1 gene expressions of ischemia and reperfusion sides were also increased as compared with contralateral cortex and caudate-putamen, they were significantly lower in RSM-treated rats than those of controls (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 respectively). The present study indicated that RSM can partly inhibit ET-1 gene expression of cerebral cortex and caudate-putamen during ischemia and reperfusion. This may be one of the protective mechanisms of RSM on cerebral ischemia and reperfusion.
 
 

Wu W, Kuang P, Li Z. Effect of radix Salviae miltiorrhizae on the gene expression of nitric oxide synthase in ischemic rat brains.J Tradit Chin Med 1998 Jun;18(2):128-33

Abstract:  The effect of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM) on the gene expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in rat brains during ischemia was studied with in situ hybridization and the results were analyzed with IBAS 2000 Image Analysis System. It was found that NOS gene expression of cerebral cortex and caudate-putamen was markedly increased in 24 hours in ischemia group (P < 0.01). In RSM-treated rats, although the NOS gene expression of ischemic side was also increased as compared with contralateral cortex and caudate-putamen, it was significantly lower in RSM-treated rats than those of the controls (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The present study indicates that RSM can partly inhibit NOS gene expression of cerebral cortex and caudate-putamen during ischemia. This may be one of the protective mechanisms of RSM on cerebral ischemia.
 
 

Wu W, Kuang P, Li Z. Protective effect of radix Salviae miltiorrhizae on apoptosis of neurons during focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury. J Tradit Chin Med 1997 Sep;17(3):220-5

Abstract:  We have found that Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM) plays a protective role in ischemic brain injury, which attracted us to investigate the effect of RSM on apoptosis of neurons during cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. The apoptotic cells in ischemic brains at different reperfusion intervals were tested with the method of TdT-mediated dUTP-DIG nick end labeling (TUNEL), and the effect of RSM on the apoptosis of neurons was studied in left middle cerebral artery (LMCA) occlusion in rat models (n = 18). The results showed that few scattered apoptotic cells were observed in right cerebral hemisphere after LMCA occlusion and reperfusion, and that a lot of apoptotic cells were found in left ischemic cerebral cortex and caudoputamen at 12 h reperfusion, and they reached peak at 24-48 h reperfusion. However, in rats pretreated with RSM, the number of apoptotic cells in left cortex and caudoputamen reduced significantly and the neuronal damage was much milder at 24 h reperfusion as compared with those of saline-treated rats. From this study, we conclude that administration of RSM can reduce the apoptotic of neurons induced by cerebral ischemia and reperfusion and afford significant cerebroprotection in the model of focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion.
 
 

Wu W, Qiu F. Experimental study on ischemia and reperfusion injury of rat liver and effects of ligustrazine and salvia compound. Chin Med Sci J 1994 Sep;9(3):162-6

Abstract:  The present study was to investigate changes of free radicals in the whole rat liver, changes of ATP levels of hepatic cells, ultrastructural changes in hepatic tissue during ischemia and reperfusion in rats and the effects of ligustrazine and salvia compound. The results indicated that: 1) the free radical levels increased by 8.3-fold and 9.0-fold in the groups with 30 and 60 min ischemia after 40 min reperfusion, as compared with the group with ischemia only (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively). 2) The levels of ATP returned to normal in the group with 30 min ischemia after reperfusion for 40 min and 3 d, remained low in the group with 90 min ischemia and fell again after a mild increase in the group with 60 min ischemia. 3) The hepatic and endothelial cell damage after ischemia became more severe after reperfusion, as revealed by electron microscopy. The present study also showed that ligustrazine and salvia compound have protective effects against reperfusion injury. They can be used to scavenge free radicals, improve hepatic microcirculation and alleviate hepatic and endothelial cell damage.
 
 

Xi SC, Che DY, Zhang WR. The inhibitory effect of radix Salviae miltiorrhizae on hypoxic structural remodeling of intra-acinar pulmonary arteries. J Tongji Med Univ 1994;14(3):148-52
Abstract:  The inhibitory effect of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM) on hypoxic structural remodeling of intra-acinar pulmonary arteries (IAPA) was observed by light and electron microscopy and morphometry. It was found that RSM can not only dilate IAPA and relieve the hypoxic injuries to endothelia cells, but also inhibit the active muscularization of IAPA in the hypoxic animals, suggesting that RSM plays a very important role in inhibiting structural remodeling of IAPA and pulmonary hypertension.
 
 

Xie M, Jin ZY, Ye GH.  Clinical research of compound salviae miltiorrhizae injection for severe pancreatitis.Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1995 May;15(5):269-70

Abstract:  Compound salviae miltiorrhizae injection was administered after operation for 28 cases of severe pancreatitis, and 13 cases were taken as a control group. The results showed that: (1) the difference was not obvious in the morbidity of complications between the two groups, but the mortality (3.6%) of the trial group was significantly lower than that (30.8%) of the control group (P < 0.05); (2) Hematocrit was clearly decreased from 46.1 +/- 5.2% to 33.2 +/- 3.9% in the trial one (P < 0.05), but platelet and hemoglobin showed no statistical significance. It is concluded that compound salviae miltiorrhiza injection might improve hemorheologic abnormalities of the disease, promote the recovery of the pancreatic tissue, and correct the serious complications such as adult respiratory distress syndrome etc.

Publication Types:

    Clinical trial
Xing ZQ, Zeng XC, Yi CT.  Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza on serum lipid peroxide, superoxide dismutase of the patients with coronary heart disease.Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1996 May;16(5):287-8

abstract:  Twenty-four patients of coronary heart disease(CHD) were treated with Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) and the change of SM on serum lipid peroxide (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) after treatment were observed. The results were compared with that of control group consisted of 20 healthy persons, it showed that before treatment, the serum LPO of patient was significantly higher than that of control group and the SOD of patient was lower than that of healthy subjects (P < 0.01). After treated with SM, the LPO level decreased and SOD activity increased significantly. The mechanism might be correlated with the effect of SM in inhibiting platelets aggregation, reducing blood viscosity, improving myocardial ischemia and protecting cytomembrane. It suggested that SM could be regarded as a good exogenous scavenger of oxygen free radical.
 
 

Xiong LL.  Therapeutic effect of combined therapy of Salvia miltiorrhizae and Polyporus umbellatus polysaccharide in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B.Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1993 Sep;13(9):533-5, 516-7

Abstract:  90 patients of chronic hepatitis B with positive HBV replication markers and abnormality of ALT were randomly allocated to 3 groups. 30 cases were treated with Salvia miltiorrhizae (SM) and Polyporus Umbellatus polysaccharide (PUP) as group I, 30 cases were treated with SM solely as group II and 30 cases were treated with PUP only as group III. By the end of 3 months in the treatment course, normalization rate of ALT were 80.0%, 40.0% and 53.3% and the negative conversion rate of HBeAg were 56.7%, 50.0% and 16.7% in the group I, II and III respectively. Follow up for 3 months after the end of therapy, ALT level was normal in 82.6%, 42.7% and 59.1% respectively. HBeAg was negative in 60.9%, 52.4% and 22.7%. Follow up for 9 months after the end of the treatment, ALT was normal in 83.3%, 43.8% and 56.3%. HBeAg was negative in 66.7%, 56.3% and 25.0% respectively. These results showed that combined therapy with SM and PUP might be more potent than SM and PUP therapy alone.

Publication Types:

  • Clinical trial
  • Randomized controlled trial

 
 

Xu ZC.  Effect of injection Salvia miltiorrhizae on peritoneal dialysis. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1993 Feb;13(2):74-6, 67

Abstract:  Effective volume of blood flow of peritoneal capillary is an important factor influencing the efficiency of peritoneal dialysis. Injection of Salvia miltiorrhizae (ISM) could dilate the blood vessels and improve microcirculation. The effect of peritoneal dialysis with three kinds of dialytic fluid was studied. The dialysate of first group contained ISM, the second used dialysate only, the third contained dopamine. The result found that ISM could markedly increase the clearance rate and ultrafiltration rate of the peritoneum to creatinine, urea nitrogen and uric acid. Three concentrations of ISM (4%, 6%, 8%) were also compared. This comparison showed that 6% injection of ISM was the optimal concentration.
 
 

Yan L, Wei J, Wu H, Chen H, Zhong G, Li L, Chen L, Li K, Tan J.  The role of hemorheologic changes in the pathogenesis of acute hemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis.Hua Hsi I Ko Ta Hsueh Hsueh Pao 1990 Mar;21(1):25-9

Abstract:  The hemorheologic alterations were studied in experimental acute hemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis (AHNP) which was induced by injection of 5% sodium taurocholate into the main pancreatic duct. The results showed that during the early stage of AHNP, all of hemorheologic parameters were significantly elevated, and continually increased at the rest intervals. The authors suggested that the blood viscosity and hematocrit increase, red blood cells tend to aggregate, and erythrocyte deformation decrease are the causation of pancreatic microcirculatory disturbances and promoting pancreatic progressive necrosis. After using low molecular dextran and Salvia miltiorrhizae, the hemorheologic alterations in AHNP were recovered, and the histologic observation improved. Our data indicate the hemorheologic disturbances is one of the key factors in the pathogenesis of AHNP.
 
 

Yang DP.  Prevention of reperfusion injury of an ischemic flap: an experimental study.Chung Hua Cheng Hsing Shao Shang Wai Ko Tsa Chih 1992 Sep;8(3):216-7, 249

Abstract:  Oxygen-derived free radicals are important mediators of tissue injury in experimental island skin flaps that have been subjected to prolonged ischemia (vascular occlusion) followed by reperfusion. In this study, the role of oxygen free radical scavenger, SOD, and a herb, salvia miltiorrhiza, in the protection of cellular damages during total ischemia and reperfusion was study in the epigastric island skin flaps in experimental rats with electron microscopy and the assessment of survival of the flaps. Control flaps subjected to 10 hours of total vascular occlusion showed a high incidence of necrosis when followed for 7 days following release of the vascular occlusion. Treatment with superoxide dismutase and salvia miltiorrhiza prior to the onset of reperfusion significantly enhanced island flap survival to 72.5% (P < 0.001) and to 64.2% (P < 0.05), respectively. The conclusions are: 1. Reperfusion for 10 hours following ischemia for 8 hours in the epigastric island flaps of the rats greatly exaggerated the original injury. 2. SOD and salvia miltiorrhiza may protect the flaps from such injury considerably and enhanced flap survival.
 
 

 

Yang Y, Wang L, Li L, Chen H.  The effects of salvia miltiorrhiza, polysaccharide sulphate, dextran 40 and mannitol on the viscoelasticity properties of red blood cell suspension.Hua Hsi I Ko Ta Hsueh Hsueh Pao 1993 Jun;24(2):143-6

Abstract:  In vitro, the effects of Dextran 40(DX40), mannitol, salvia miltiorrhiza and polysaccharide Sulphate (PSS) on the viscoelasticity properties of red cell suspensions were studied. The results demonstrated that when the concentration of the drugs increased, mannitol increased eta 5 x 96, eta 51 x 2, eta', eta" and G', and DX 40 increased the values of eta' eta" and G', but it had no obvious effect on eta 5 x 96 and eta 51 x 2; salvia miltiorrhiza and PSS had no obvious effect on eta 5 x 96, eta 51 x 2, eta', eta'' and G'. However, the average values of eta', eta'' and G' of Salvia miltiorrhiza and PSS groups were lower than those of DX 40 and Mannitol groups. Clinically, these four drugs in treatment doses might improve viscoelasticity properties of whole blood. For treating the ischemic cerebral vascular diseases and hyperviscosity syndromes, Salvia miltiorrhiza and PSS could be infused faster, but DX40 and mannitol should be infused slowly.
 
 

Yokozawa T, Chung HY, Oura H, Nonaka G, Nishioka I.  Isolation of a renal function-facilitating constituent from the Oriental drug, salviae miltiorrhizae radix. Nippon Jinzo Gakkai Shi 1989 Oct;31(10):1091-8

Abstract:  An attempt was made to isolate the active component which exhibits an improving effect on renal function from Salviae Miltiorrhazae Radix (Chinese crude drug). Systematic isolation from aqueous extract of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix was carried out, and Compound 1 was found to be more effective than any of the other constituents in improving renal functional parameters; that is, a marked reduction of glomerular filtration rate following adenine ingestion was improved by administration of this substance. The renal plasma flow and renal blood flow were also increased in renal failure rats. On the basis of chemical and spectroscopic data, Compound 1 was shown to be identical with magnesium lithospermate B.
 
 

Yu ZP, Jiang JX, Zhu LH, Li Z, Guo XH. Effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge on isolated perfused liver and portal vein of rats. Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih 1992 Dec;17(12):749-51, 764

Abstract:  The experiment results showed that Salvia miltiorrhiza (SMB) had a protective effect on the isolated perfused liver injured by CCl4 of rats, made the activity of GPT in perfusate of SMB group lower than that of intoxicated groups and relieved the hepato-pathohistologic lesions of SMB group as compared to the intoxicated group. SMB had no significant effects on both the activities of SGPT in vitro and the portal vein of rats.
 
 

Yu S, Kuang P, Kanazawa T, Onodera K, Metoki H, Oike Y. The effects of radix Salviae miltiorrhizae on lipid accumulation of peroxidized low density lipoprotein in mouse peritoneal macrophages--lipid analysis and morphological studies. J Tradit Chin Med 1998 Dec;18(4):292-9

Abstract:  Mouse peritoneal macrophages were incubated in DMEM with pox-LDL and Rradix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM) to investigate the effects of RSM on the internalization of peroxidized low density lipoprotein (pox-LDL) by using lipid analysis and electron microscopy. Lipid peroxide (LPO) concentrations were increased slightly in the medium after incubation of macrophages with normal LDL (n-LDL), while decreased significantly in the media after incubation of macrophages with pox-LDL. In the three groups with pox-LDL, it could be found that there was a dose-dependent decrease of concentrations of LPO and total cholesterol (TCH) in the two RSM groups, and the decrease in the two RSM groups was much greater than in the group without RSM. RSM accelerated a more decrease of LPO than cholesterol contents in the media containing pox-LDL. The ultrastructural studies also showed that RSM induced the accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of mouse peritoneal macrophages. The results suggested that RSM could accelerate the phagocytosis and degradation of pox-LDL by macrophages.
 
 

Yuan QL, Li Y, Chang LF, He GB.  Effect of naomaitong on basilar artery rings and portal vein strips. Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih 1993 Jul;18(7):433-5, 448

Abstract:  Both Naomaitong and single salvia miltiorrhiza inhibit the contraction of rabbit basilar artery rings evoked by CaCl2 and KC1 and have nonspecific antagonism against the quantity effect curve of CaCl2. Naomaitong and single salvia miltiorrhiza also inhibit the contraction of rabbit basilar artery rings evoked by KC1. Clearly the inhibitory function of the former is greater than that of the latter. But on the myogenic activity of portal vein strips in rats Naomaitong has light inhibitive effect while salvia miltiorrhiza has not.
 
 

Zhang X, Kuang P, Wu W, Yin X, Kanazawa T, Onodera K, Metoki H, Oike Y. The effect of radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae Composita on peroxidation of low density lipoprotein due to copper dichloride. J Tradit Chin Med 1994 Sep;14(3):195-201

Abstract:  It is well known that plasma lipoprotein, particularly oxidized LDL, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and atherosclerotic diseases. We used oxidized LDL generated by incubating LDL from healthy persons with copper dichloride as a model to investigate the antioxidate property of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae Composita (RSMC). On photos, the spot X1 and the spot X2 were clearly found in the control group after the dialysis into copper dichloride for 24 and 48 hours, but they could not found in the RSMC group. The analysis of the constituents of lipids in LDL (by charring method) showed that after dialysis the percentages of the spot X1 and the spot X2 in the RSMC group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.01). The results suggest that RSMC plays a potential role in antioxidation of lipids or LDL.
 
 

Zhang X, Wu W, Kuang P, Takemichi K, Kogo O, Hirobumi M, Yasaburo O.  The effect of radix salviae miltiorrhizae composita and ligustrazine on lipid peroxidation in low density lipoprotein due to copper dichloride.J Tradit Chin Med 1994 Dec;14(4):292-7

Abstract:  It is well known that lipid peroxide in low density lipoprotein (LDL) plays an important role in atherosclerosis and atherosclerotic diseases. We used oxidized LDL generated by incubating LDL from healthy persons with copper dichloride as a model to investigate the anti-lipid-peroxide property of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae Composita (RSMC) and ligustrazine. The changes in concentrations of lipid peroxide and lipids in LDL due to Cu++ were studied, and the effects of RSMC and ligustrazine on the changes were studied. The results in our study indicate that RSMC has a potential role on anti-lipid-peroxidation, but it was not found that ligustrazine has similar anti-peroxidation action.
 
 

Zhang L, Cai L, Zhang W.  A pathological survey of the therapeutic effect on experimental hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.Chung Hua Ping Li Hsueh Tsa Chih 1996 Apr;25(2):102-4

Abstract:  Rat models of the acute and recuperative phases of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) were established beginning by the 7th day after birth through ischemia and hypoxia. The prophylatic and therapeutic effects on experimental HIE were studied by the application of radix salviae miltiorrhizae, flunarizine and hyperbaric oxygen. Experimental data indicated that among these measures, radix salviae miltiorrhizae gave a better result and the pathological change in the prophylactic and therapeutic groups particularly the result of the latter one were light serious than those of the control group.
 
 

Zhang PT, Chen ZR.  Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza on lipid peroxidation antioxidant enzymes activity in patients with chronic cor pulmonale. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1994 Aug;14(8):474-7

Abstract:  This paper studied the effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) on plasma lipid peroxidation (LPO), RBC superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) activity in patients with chronic cor pulmonale. 30 patients were randomly divided into two treatment groups (routine and SM). The four parameters have been measured in 22 healthy subjects as control and patients of two treatment groups. The results showed: (1) Before treatment both treatment groups had significantly higher LPO and SOD and markedly lower GSH-Px and CAT level than that of healthy control (P < 0.001) respectively. (2) After treatment in routine group the four parameters have normalized, P < 0.05. (3) Routine treatment was compared with SM treatment, except SOD, the other three parameters were significantly different between two treatment groups (P < 0.001). The increased levels of GSH-Px and CAT and the decreased LPO were significantly greater in SM group than routine treatment (P < 0.001). The above-mentioned results indicated patients with cor pulmonale in acute exacerbation their lipid peroxide reaction was enhanced, the antioxidant enzymes lost their balance. SM could attenuate markedly lipid peroxide reaction, adjust the imbalance of the three antioxidant enzymes, enhance body's defence capability against damage of active oxygen free radical induced lipid peroxidation.

Publication Types:

  • Clinical trial
  • Randomized controlled trial

 
 

Zhao BL, Jiang W, Zhao Y, Hou JW, Xin WJ.  Scavenging effects of salvia miltiorrhiza on free radicals and its protection for myocardial mitochondrial membranes from ischemia-reperfusion injury.Biochem Mol Biol Int 1996 May;38(6):1171-82

Abstract:  Using low temperature electron spin resonance (ESR) technique, we found that Salvia miltiorrhiza injection could scavenge the oxygen free radicals generated from ischemia-reperfusion injury in the myocardium as effectively as SOD. Using ESR spin trapping technique we found that one of its effective components, Danshensu, could scavenge superoxide anion free radicals generated from the reaction system of xanthine and xanthine oxidase, and that lipid free radicals generated from lipid peroxidation of myocardial mitochondrial membranes could be scavenged by another effective component, Tanshinone. The membrane fluidity of the mitochondria isolated from the ischemia-reperfused hearts was studied with the ESR spin labelling technique, and the TBA-method was used to detect the lipid peroxidation. It was found that Danshensu could protect the mitochondrial membrane from the ischemia-reperfusion injury and lipid peroxidation.
 
 

Zhen Z, Guo Y, Zhang Z.  Microthrombi in coronary heart disease.Chung Hua I Hsueh Tsa Chih 1995 May;75(5):266-9, 318

Abstract:  Of 180 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) 43 (23.9%) showed in microthrombi conjunctival microcirculation. We compared the healthy subjects with the patients with microthrombi and thrombi-free as well as with the patients with microthrombi pre- and post-treatment of heparin or salvia miltiorrhizae. The formation and the number of microthrombi in the CHD patients were closely related to symptoms, ECGS, plasma TXB2, 6-kero-PGF1a and other indexes on hemodynamics. Follow-up of the patients with microthrombi revealed that their death rate was higher than that of CHD patients without microthrombi, especially in the sudden deaths. We consider that microthrombi may be regarded as an important index of the state, therapeutic efficacy, and prognosis of the CHD patients. The use of heparin may certainly be based on the condition of the microthrombi in the microcirculation of CHD patients.
 
 

Zheng XK.  Effects of Salvia miltiorrhizae composite injection on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in rabbitsChung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1991 Dec;11(12):733-5, 710

Abstract:  In the present experiment, the hemodynamic effect of Salvia miltiorrhizae composite injection (SMCI) on pulmonary and systemic circulation during hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension was observed. The results showed that the pulmonary arterial pressure increased at first in both group, then decreased gradually, but in SMCI group decreased much more than in the control group. The pulmonary vascular resistance increased very significantly in the control group, but in SMCI group considerably decreased after administration, then keeping at a level little more than the normal. Difference between groups was very significant. The stroke volume increased slightly at first and then decreased persistently in the control group, but increased significantly and kept at a higher level in SMCI group. The protective effects of SMCI on hypoxic myocardium was studied by observing ST-segment on ECG. It was found that the ST-segment fell in both groups, but the degree of fall in SMCI was much less than in the control group. It was found that the PaO2 was 35.1 +/- 2.6 in the control group, 38.1 +/- 2.4 in SMCI group. Difference between groups was significant (P less than 0.05.) The above results suggest that SMCI can diminish hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, improve PaO2 in hypoxic animal and protect hypoxic myocardium. Hence, SMCI can be used to prevent and treat hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension.
 
 

Zhou XM, Lu ZY, Wang DW.  Experimental study of Salvia miltiorrhiza on prevention of restenosis after angioplasty. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1996 Aug;16(8):480-2

Abstract:  For evaluating the possibility of Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) on the prevention of arterial restenosis after angioplasty, we investigated the effect of SM on the intimal thickening of air-injured carotid artery of rats. The results showed that the maximal intimal thickness of the injured arteries was much thinner in the treatment group than that in the control group, indicated that SM could prevent experimental restenosis in rat model. Furthermore, we examined the effect of SM on the proliferation of the isolated rabbit arterial smooth muscle cells (SMC) cultivated in vitro. The results showed that SM inhibited the 3H-TdR take-up and proliferation of SMC in a dose-dependent manner. The study raised the possibility that SM could be used to prevent arterial restenosis after angioplasty.
 
 

 

Zhu MD, Cai FY.  Evidence of compromised circulation in the pathogenesis of optic nerve damage in chronic glaucomatous rabbit.Chin Med J (Engl) 1993 Dec;106(12):922-7

Abstract:  The protective effect of improving the microcirculation on the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and the ultrastructure of the optic nerve after intravenous (i.v.) use of Salviae miltiorrhiza (SMR) was studied in a chronic intraocular hypertension model in 36 rabbits. These rabbits were treated with topical 0.5% timolol, or i.v. SMR or i.v. 0.9% saline for 1, 3, 5 or 8 weeks. The intraocular pressure (IOP) was 19.6 +/- 2 mmHg and the RGC density was 1140 +/- 121.2/mm2 in control rabbits. After one week of intraocular hypertension (IOP between 30 and 40 mmHg), the RGC densities decreased to between 650 and 820/mm2. Following the use of timolol for 1 to 8 weeks, IOP returned to control level and the RGC density increased to 1015 +/- 7/mm2. After treatment with i.v. saline for 8 weeks, the RGC density decreased progressively from 651 +/- 1/mm2 at the beginning of treatment to 83 +/- 3/mm2. The RGC density of those rabbits treated with i.v. SMR for 8 weeks remained virtually unchanged (658 +/- 5/mm2) compared to the RGC density at the beginning of the treatment. Severe ultrastructural damage of optic nerve and collapsed capillaries were found in rabbits treated with saline while these findings were mild in rabbits treated with SMR. During these periods of treatment, the intraocular hypertension did not decrease in rabbits treated with either saline or SMR. From these findings and the fact that SMR improves local microcirculation, it is considered that the compromised microcirculation is one of the mechanisms in the pathogenesis of optic nerve damage in chronic glaucoma.
 
 

Warfarin Interactions
 
 

Yu CM; Chan JC; Sanderson JE.  Chinese herbs and warfarin potentiation by 'danshen'.J Intern Med, 241(4):337-9 1997 Apr

Abstract:  Drug interactions with warfarin can be dangerous and although common drug interactions are now well recognized those with Chinese herbs are not widely appreciated. 'Danshen' is a herbal medicine often used for various complaints, particularly cardiovascular, in the Chinese community. We report a case of danshen-induced overcoagulation with severe and dangerous abnormalities of clotting in a patient with rheumatic heart disease.
 

Hoult JR; Pay´a M.  Pharmacological and biochemical actions of simple coumarins: natural products with therapeutic potential. Gen Pharmacol, 27(4):713-22 1996 Jun

Abstract:  1. More than 300 coumarins have been identified from natural sources, especially green plants. The pharmacological and biochemical properties and therapeutic applications of simple coumarins depend upon the pattern of substitution. More complex related compounds based on the coumarin nucleus include the dicoumarol/warfarin anticoagulants, aflatoxins and the psoralens (photosensitizing agents). 2. Coumarin itself (1,2-benzopyrone) has long-established efficacy in slow-onset long-term reduction of lymphoedema in man, as confirmed in recent double-blind trials against elephantiasis and postmastectomy swelling of the arm. The mechanism of action is uncertain, but may involve macrophage-induced proteolysis of oedema protein. However, coumarin has low absolute bioavailability in man (< 5%), due to extensive first-pass hepatic conversion to 7-hydroxycoumarin followed by glucuronidation. It may, therefore, be a prodrug. 3. Scoparone (6,7-dimethoxycoumarin) has been purified from the hypolipidaemic Chinese herb Artemisia scoparia and shown to reduce the proliferative responses of human peripheral mononuclear cells, to relax smooth muscle, to reduce total cholesterol and triglycerides and to retard the characteristic pathomorphological changes in hypercholesterolaemic diabetic rabbits. Various properties of scoparone were suggested to account for these findings, including ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species, inhibition of tyrosine kinases and potentiation of prostaglandin generation. 4. Osthole (7-methoxy-8-[3-methylpent-2-enyl]coumarin) from Angelica pubescens, used also in Chinese medicine, causes hypotension in vivo, and inhibits platelet aggregation and smooth muscle contraction in vitro. It may interfere with calcium influx and with cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. 5. Cloricromene, a synthetic coumarin derivative, also possesses antithrombotic antiplatelet actions, inhibits PMN neutrophil function and causes vasodilatation. Some of these properties of cloricromene have been ascribed to inhibition of arachidonate release from membrane phospholipids. 6. Simple coumarins possessing ortho-dihydroxy functions, such as fraxetin and 4-methyldaphnetin, are potent inhibitors (low micromolar) of lipid peroxidation and scavengers of superoxide anion radicals and of aqueous alkylperoxyl radicals, but may be pro-oxidant (enhancing generation of hydroxyl radicals) in the presence of free iron ions. These coumarins also inhibit the proinflammatory 5-lipoxygenase enzyme at micromolar concentrations. Another related coumarin, 5,7-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin, is of special interest as it inhibits lipid peroxidation, and scavenges alkylperoxyl and superoxide radicals. Unlike most other simple coumarins studied, 5,7-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin also scavenges hypochlorous acid, and is a potent inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase, but is not pro-oxidant. 7. 5,7- and 6,7-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin both reduced the duration of ventricular fibrillation in postischaemic reperfused isolated perfused rat hearts (in which oxygen-derived free radicals are implicated), showing that these antioxidant coumarins possess beneficial properties in this pathophysiological model. 8. In view of the established low toxicity, relative cheapness, presence in the diet and occurrence in various herbal remedies of coumarins, it appears prudent to evaluate their properties and applications further.

 
Izzat MB; Yim AP; El-Zufari MH. A taste of Chinese medicine!  Ann Thorac Surg, 66(3):941-2 1998 Sep
Abstract:  We report a case of profound anticoagulation caused by interaction between warfarin and danshen, a widely used Chinese herbal medicine, in a patient who had undergone mitral valve replacement. Patients taking warfarin should be warned not to take this herb. In addition, physicians should be alert to the possibility of an interaction with herbal medicine when anticoagulation control becomes difficult and no other causes are apparent.
Page RL 2nd; Lawrence JD.  Potentiation of warfarin by dong quai.Pharmacotherapy, 66(7):870-6 1999 Jul
Abstract:  Dong quai is a Chinese herbal supplement touted for treatment of menstrual cramping, irregular menses, and menopausal symptoms. Phytochemical analyses found it to consist of natural coumarin derivatives, as well as constituents possessing antithrombotic, antiarrhythmic, phototoxic, and carcinogenic effects. A 46-year-old African-American woman with atrial fibrillation stabilized on warfarin experienced a greater than 2-fold elevation in prothrombin time and international normalized ratio after taking dong quai concurrently for 4 weeks. No identifiable cause was ascertained for the increase except dong quai. The patient's coagulation values returned to acceptable levels 1 month after discontinuing the herb. One animal study suggests a pharmacodynamic interaction between the product and warfarin, but the true mechanism remains unknown. Practitioners should be aware of the possibility of such an interaction and should inform patients of potential hazards of taking the two together.
 
Yu HC; Chan TY; Critchley JA; Woo KS.  Factors determining the maintenance dose of warfarin in Chinese patients.  QJM, 89(2):127-35 1996 Feb
Abstract:  Chinese patients are reportedly more sensitive than Caucasians to the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. We examined warfarin dose requirements and their determinants in 151 Chinese out-patients on stable maintenance dose of warfarin with international normalized ratio of 2 to 2.5. Mean daily warfarin requirement was 3.3 +/- 1.4 mg, much lower than reported doses in Caucasian patients. The most important determinant was age (r = -0.43, p < 0.001), with progressively lower warfarin requirement with increasing age (p = 0.0001). There was a weaker association with body weight (r = 0.20, p = 0.01). Patients with chronic rheumatic heart disease tended to require a smaller dose than those with heart valve replacements (2.94 +/- 1.24 vs. 3.69 +/- 1.42 mg, p < 0.01). We confirm that Chinese patients require a smaller dose of warfarin for the same degree of anticoagulation. Age is the most important factor affecting dose requirement, although body weight and underlying disease also play a role.
Chan TY.  Drug interactions as a cause of overanticoagulation and bleedings in Chinese patients receiving warfarin.  Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther, 89(2):403-5 1998 Jul
Abstract:  Little is known about the incidence and consequences of drug interactions in patients receiving warfarin. Hence, drug interactions as a cause of overanticoagulation and bleedings were determined in Chinese patients admitted to our medical unit during a 9-month period in 1994/95. Only patients with an admission international normalized ratio (INR) of > 3.0 (target range 2.0-2.5) were included since the drug interactions, if present, were more likely to be of clinical significance. Of 35 patients reviewed, 7 had a predisposing condition such as peptic ulcer and 19 received drugs or folk medicines that can interact with warfarin. Based on the temporal relationship between the initiation of the interacting agent(s) and the rise in INR/onset of bleedings, drug-warfarin interactions were definitely (n = 6) or possibly (n = 1) responsible in 7 patients (drugs for common cold 2, piroxicam plus piroxicam gel 2, medicated oil (15% methyl salicylate) plus Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge 1, "analgesic balm" (50% methyl salicylate) 1, diclofenac gel 1). These agents were prescribed by their physicians (n = 1), family doctors (n = 1) and other specialists (n = 1) or bought over-the-counter (n = 2). One other patient used the drugs from previous consultations. Five of the 7 patients developed bleedings. Drug interactions accounted for 20% of all patients with an INR of > 3.0 and 5 (36%) of 14 patients with bleedings. Patients receiving warfarin should be warned about the danger of self-medication. When prescribing warfarin, physicians should be aware of other medications that their patients are taking.
 
 
Yu CM; Chan TY; Tsoi WC; Sanderson JE .  QJM, 90(8):535-43 1997 Aug
Abstract :Warfarin requirements are lower in the Chinese, but it is not known if this applies to heparin. We investigated the optimal dose for heparin therapy in Chinese patients, and to assess relationship between i.v. heparin dosage and anticoagulation efficacy. One hundred Chinese patients requiring intravenous heparin therapy were given an initial bolus followed by continuous intravenous infusion. The main outcome measures were: (i) Efficacy of anticoagulation assessed by blood coagulation studies (APTT) compared to heparin dosage, (ii) Determinants of dosage variation-age, gender, body weight, height, indication for heparin therapy and number of medications, other disease, and serum albumin level. It was found that the mean therapeutic infusion dose requirement of heparin was 848.7 +/- 274.7 units/h, 79% required a dose of 1000 units/h or less. Heparin dose correlated negatively with age (r = -0.40; p < 0.001) and positively with weight (r = 0.44 p < 0.001) and height (r = 0.49; p < 0.001). Chinese subjects require lower heparin doses (about 800 units/h) than usually recommended for Caucasians (usual dose 1000-1500 units/h). This can be partly explained by the lower body weight in Chinese patients.
 

 

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