Bai YR, Wang SZ. Hemodynamic study on nitroglycerin compared with Salvia
miltiorrhiza.Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1994 Jan;14(1):24-5,
Chen CP, Yokozawa T, Chung HY. Inhibitory effect of caffeic acid
analogues isolated from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl
radical.Exp Toxicol Pathol 1999 Jan;51(1):59-63
Ding Y, Soma S, Takano-Yamamoto T, Matsumoto S, Sakuda M. Effects
of salvia miltiorrhiza bunge (SMB) on MC3T3-E1 cells. J Osaka Univ Dent
Sch 1995 Dec;35:21-7
Gu ZP, Ma CX, Zhang BX. The effects of injection salviae miltiorrhizae
in preventing and treating fat embolism syndrome.Chung Hua Wai Ko Tsa
Chih 1994 Nov;32(11):692-5
Hu MZ. Effect of radix salviae miltiorrhizae on the mitotic activity
of osteoblast-like cells isolated from chicken embryo calvariae cultured
in vitro.Chung Hua Wai Ko Tsa Chih 1993 Abstract: Chicken
embryo calvariae cultured in vitro, could yield 3 types of osteoblast-like
cells, which differed in morphology. They were the spindle-shaped cells,
globular cells, and squamous cells. Of these, the squamous cell was the
chief cellular component, while both the spindle-shaped cells and the globular
cells gradually transformed into squamous cells. Administration of Radix
Salviae Miltiorrhizae rendered more rapid growth of the osteoblast-like
cells in the early stage of culture. After 17-day of culture, when both
the control group cells and the treated, group cells became quite confluent,
3H-Thymidine labelling and radioautographic study revealed a very statistically
significant increase in the number of cells, bearing silver grains over
the nucleus area in the treated group, as compared with the control (P
< 0.001). Since osteoblasts play a pivotal role in fracture healing,
administration of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae can exert favourable influence
on bone repair through increasing the number of osteoblasts.
Hu Y, Ge Y, Zhang Y, Liu J, Li X, Liu Q. Treatment of 100 cases
of nerve deafness with injectio radix salviae miltiorrhizae. J Tradit
Chin Med 1992 Dec;12(4):256-8
Wei ZM. Effects of injection Salviae miltiorrhizae on senile chronic
asthmatic bronchitis patients.Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih
Randomized controlled trial
Kuang P, Tao Y, Tian Y. Effect of radix Salviae miltiorrhizae on nitric oxide in cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury.J Tradit Chin Med 1996 Sep;16(3):224-7
Abstract: It has been postulated that nitric oxide (NO) is produced in significant amount on reperfusion of ischemic brain and could cause brain edema and cell death. This study was undertaken in an attempt to determine whether Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM) could reduce cerebral NO contents in 4-vessel occlusion rat model after 30 min of global ischemia and 15 min of reperfusion. There was a significant increase in cerebral NO level in untreated animals as compared with sham-operated ones. By pretreatment with RSM the cerebral NO concentration was reduced to normal level. The possibilities of neuroprotective role of RSM in cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury were discussed.
Kuang P, Tao Y, Shi J. Effect of radix Salviae miltiorrhizae on extracellular adenosine and evaluation of its protective efficacy in ischemic reperfusion rat--microdialysis, HPLC and histopathologic studies.
J Tradit Chin Med 1997 Jun;17(2):140-7
Abstract: The effects of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM) on
extracellular adenosine (Ade) and its metabolites, i.e. inosine, hypoxanthine
and xanthine, were studied with microdialysis and HPLC techniques during
cerebral ischemia-reperfusion induced by 4-vessel occlusion in rat brain.
Histological examination of hippocampus was performed 6 h after reperfusion.
ECF (extracellular fluid) adenosine and its metabolites were compared between
the controls (n = 6) and RSM-treated rats (n = 6). Basal level of Ade and
its metabolites release were not greatly affected by pretreatment with
RSM, and no significant difference as compared with the sham-operated (n
= 6). Ade and its metabolites were dramatically increased after ischemia,
and decreased near basal-level and its metabolites remained high at the
end of reperfusion. In the RSM-treated animals, the tendency of changes
of Ade and its metabolites was just the same as in the controls, but the
magnitudes of changes were significantly lower at some different time points.
In sham-operated animals, no changes were observed at different time points
both during ischemia (30 min.) and reperfusion (60 min.). Histopathological
findings demonstrated that RSM pretreatment results in better histologic
preservation of the pyramidal cells in the postischemic reperfusion CA1
sector both qualitatively and quantitatively. These results indicated that
RSM protects against cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury.
Kuang P, Tao Y, Tian Y. Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae treatment
results in decreased lipid peroxidation in reperfusion injury.J Tradit
Chin Med 1996 Jun;16(2):138-42
Kuang P, Wu W, Zhu K. Evidence for amelioration of cellular damage
in ischemic rat brain by radix salviae miltiorrhizae treatment--immunocytochemistry
and histopathology studies.J Tradit Chin Med 1993 Mar;13(1):38-41
Lei XL, Chiou GC. Cardiovascular pharmacology of Panax notoginseng
(Burk) F.H. Chen and Salvia miltiorrhiza. Am J Chin Med 1986;14(3-4):145-52
Abstract: The cardiovascular pharmacology of two Chinese herbs, Salvia
miltiorrhiza (SM) and Panax notoginseng (Burk) F. H. Chen (PNG) were studied
both in vivo and in vitro. Extracts of both herbs suppressed systemic blood
pressure in albino rats and rabbits, an effect which was blocked or reversed
by atropine, propranolol, and chlorpheniramine plus cimetidine. This reversed
hypertension was blocked by phenoxybenzamine. These results indicate that
these herbs have multiple effector sites in the cardiovascular system.
This could be due to an increased utilization of extracellular calcium
ions since the activity of SM on isolated blood vessels of rabbits was
enhanced by 2 mM Ca++. The effects of aqueous extract of SM and purified
active principles of SM (tanshinones) on rat and rabbit blood vessels in
vitro were very similar both qualitatively and quantitatively. Both caused
vasodilation of coronary arteries at all concentrations tested but induced
vasodilation of renal, mesenteric and femoral arteries only at low concentrations.
At higher concentrations, vasoconstriction was induced in these vessels.
These results indicate that an economical decoction of SM is as efficacious
as the more expensive isolated tanshinones. Both SM and PNG would be useful
as antianginal agents since they dilate coronary vessels. Their use in
hypertension is questionable since they induce both vasodilation and vasoconstriction
depending on dose and target vessel.
Lei XL, Chiou GC. Studies on cardiovascular actions of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Am J Chin Med 1986;14(1-2):26-32
Abstract: Cardiovascular actions of S. miltiorrhiza (SM) were
studied on systemic blood pressure in the rat. Langendorff cardiac preparation
in the guinea pig, and four types of vasculature in the dog, including
coronary, renal, femoral, and mesenteric arteries. SM induced dose-related
hypotension without changing heart rate. The hypotension was antagonized
by atropine, propranolol, and chlorpheniramine plus cimetidine. In the
isolated whole-heart preparation, SM increased coronary blood flow significantly
for 15 min and positive inotropic action for 3 min after pulse injection.
SM relaxed all arteries at low concentration (3.0 mg/ml) and contracted
all but the coronary artery at higher concentration (10.0 mg/ml). The coronary
artery relaxed at all doses of SM tested.
Li X, Yao X, Li T. Effects of radix Salviae miltiorrhizae on hemodynamics of portal hypertension: clinical and experimental study. Chung Hua Nei Ko Tsa Chih 1997 Jul;36(7):450-3
Abstract: By measuring portal pressure of hepatocirrhotic dogs
of bile duct ligation directly, and detecting portal system flow in patients
with hepatic cirrhosis by ultrasound doppler, we studied the portal hemodynamic
effects of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM). After intravenous administration
of RSM in hepatocirrhotic dogs, the portal venous pressure (PPV), wedge
hepatic venous pressure (WHVP), and hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG)
were significantly decreased (P < 0.05-0.01), but the mean arterial
pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) unchanged (P > 0.05). After long-term
administration of RSM (10-12 weeks), the diameter of portal vein (DPV)
and splenic vein (DSV), the flow of portal vein (QPV), and splenic vein
(QSV) in patients with hepatic cirrhosis were significantly decreased respectively
(P < 0.05-0.001). Hypodynamia, abdominal distension, anorexia and liver
function (ALT) were improved partially after administration of RSM in patients
with hepatic cirrhosis. Side-effects of RSM were not found. The results
demonstrated that RSM is an effective drug of depressing portal pressure
with few side-effects.
Li CP, Yung KH, Chiu KW. Hypotensive action of Salvia miltiorrhiza cell culture extract. Am J Chin Med 1990;18(3-4):157-66
Abstract: Salvia miltiorrhiza cell culture extract (SCE) was
shown to produce dose-dependent hypotensive response in normo-tensive rats.
The mode of this hypotensive action was studied both in vivo and in vitro.
This vasodepressor effect was not due to the presence of cations (potassium,
calcium and magnesium) in the extract. In pharmacological antagonist studies,
the hypotensive effect was shown not being mediated via the alpha-, beta-adrenoceptors,
histamine receptors and autonomic ganglion; nor via direct vasodilation
and diuresis. However, the vasodepressor effect was probably angiotensin-
and/or bradykinin-related since captopril infusion potentiated the hypotensive
effect of SCE. Furthermore, data indicated that the vasodepressor effect
might be accounted for by the positive inotropic and negative chronotropic
effects of SCE, the latter via its modulation of cholinergic activity.
Liu SY, Xu YY, Zhu JY. The effects of Salvia miltiorrhizae Bge and Ligustrazine on thromboxane A2 and prostacyclin in pregnancy induced hypertension.Chung Hua Fu Chan Ko Tsa Chih 1994 Nov;29(11):648-50, 697
Abstract: The clinical efficiency and mechanism of traditional
Chinese medicinal herb Salvia Miltiorrhizae Bge (SMB) and Ligustrazine
(L) on pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) were studied in 30 patients.
Before and after the administration of SMB and L, the following parameters:
mean arterial pressure (MAP), proteinuria, levels of Thromboxane A2 (TXA2)
and Prostacyclin (PGI2) were observed. TXA2 and PGI2 were measured by their
stable hydration products Thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto-prostaglandin
F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) by an established radioimmunoassay. The results
of treatment were compared with the base line values and showed as follows:
MAP and proteinuria decreased significantly (P < 0.05); no marked difference
existed in TXB2; the level of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha increased significantly
(P < 0.05); the rate of TXB2/6-keto-PGF1 alpha decreased significantly
(P < 0.05). The results suggested that SMB and L can invigorate blood
circulation by decreasing vasoconstriction.
Liu J, Kuang P, Wu W, Zhang F, Liu J, Wan F, Huang Y, Ding A.
Abstract: Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM), a well-known traditional
Chinese medicinal herb, has been used to improve blood circulation and
resolve blood stasis. We have previously found that RSM has neuroprotective
effect on ischemia and/or ischemia-reperfusion rats. The purpose of this
study was to obtain further information on the mechanism of the RSM-induced
neuroprotection and to examine the neuroprotective effect on neurons exposed
to anoxia. The effect of RSM on anoxic damage in cultured hippocampal neurons
of neonatal rat was investigated by using morphological changes and heat
shock protein 70 kD (HSP70) expression as indicators. RSM given 0.5 h before
2 h-anoxia followed by 48 hours reoxygenation could significantly increase
survival rate of hippocampal neurons and number of HSP70 positive cells.
The results suggest that RSM has a direct neuroprotective effects on anoxic
damage in hippocampal neurons.
Liu J, Hua G, Liu W, Cui Y, Huang H, Zhao S, Chu Y, Yang C, Chen W. The effect of IH764-3 on fibroblast proliferation and function.Chin Med Sci J 1992 Sep;7(3):142-7
Abstract: The effect of IH764-3, a potent component isolated
from Salvia miltiorrhiza, on the proliferation and function of cultured
fibroblasts was studied. It was found that the fibroblast growth curve
had a dose-dependent relationship with IH764-3 concentration. The incorporation
of 3H-TdR and 3H-proline into fibroblasts was significantly inhibited by
IH764-3, and calmodulin, fibronectin and thrombospondin contents in the
test group were obviously lower than those in the control group. Flow cytometry
showed that in the IH764-3-treated group, the percentage of cells in G0/G1
phase was higher than that in the control. Electron microscopic observation
(TEM and SEM) showed that in the treated group, collagen secretion was
decreased. All of these results indicate that IH764-3 exerts a direct inhibitory
effect on fibroblast proliferation and affects their ability to synthesize
Liu J. The effect of IH764-3 on proliferation and function of fibroblasts.Chung Kuo I Hsueh Ko Hsueh Yuan Hsueh Pao 1993 Jun;15(3):201-5
Abstract: IH764-3, a potent component isolated from Salviae miltiorrhizae
(a component of TML) was used to study the effect on proliferation and
functions of cultured fibroblasts. The fibroblast growth curve demonstrated
a dose-dependent relationship between growth and IH764-3 concentration.
The incorporation of 3H-TdR and 3H-proline into fibroblasts was significantly
inhibited by IH764-3. Calmodulin level, fibronectin and thrombospondin
contents in the test group were obviously lower than those in the control
group. Flow-cytometry showed that in the IH764-3 treated group, the percentage
of cells in G0 + G1 phase was higher than that in the control. Electron
microscopic observation (TEM and SEM) showed that in the treated group,
the secretory function of collagen had decreased. All the results indicated
that IH764-3 exerts a direct inhibitory effect on fibroblast proliferation
and affects their ability to synthesize and secrete collagenous substances.
Liu C, Shi W, Sun L, Zheng Q. Effects of radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae
on visceral pain discharges in the posterior nucleus of the thalamus in
cats.Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih 1990 Feb;15(2):112-5, 128
Lu Q, Shi C, Wu Z. An experimental and clinical study on radix Salviae miltiorrhiae in the treatment of hepatocellular Ca2+ overload during hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury.Chung Hua Wai Ko Tsa Chih 1996 Feb;34(2):98-101
Abstract: In recent years there has been considerable interest
concerning the role of hepatocellular Ca2+ overload which probably was
a major factor in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. We studied the effect
of radix salviae miltiorrhizae (RSM) on cytosolic free calciumion concentration
[(Ca2+)i](nM) in isolated hepatocytes in rats and patients with ischemia
reperfusion by microflurometry using fluorescent (Ca2+)i indicator Fura-2/AM.
Changes of lipid peroxide free radical (ROO.) signal ranges with in the
liver tissue by ESR technique and those of hepatocellular ultrastructure
by electronmicroscope were also observed. The results showed that RSM reduced
levels of (Ca2+)i and ROO. Ymax (mm) ESR signal rangs. RSM had an effect
on protecting hepatocytes against ischemia/reperfusion injury as a useful
receptor-operated calcium channels (ROC) blocker.
Luo JA, Peng YM, Xia YC, Lei Y. Therapeutic effects of Chinese drugs on early renal damage of rats caused by fish bile. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1993 Feb;13(2):98-9, 70
Abstract: The therapeutic effects of Salvia miltiorrhizae, Typha
angustifolia, Rheum palmatum preparations on early renal damage of rats
caused by fish bile were observed. These drugs were effective in reducing
serum creatinine, urinary NAGase, count of necrosed epithelial cells of
proximal tubule and that of glomerular filled with RBC in Bowman's space
(P < 0.05), and also effective in increasing creatinine clearance (P
Meng XC, Hou JC, Jiang Y. Salvia miltiorrhizae in the treatment of the viral myocarditis.Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1992 Jun;12(6):345-7, 324-5 Abstract: In Order to evaluate the effect of Salvia miltiorrhizae (SM) on the acute viral myocarditis (AVM), 60 children with AVM were studied. The patients were divided in random into two groups, group 1 treated with vit. C, ATP, CoA (n = 30), group II with SM plus vit. C, ATP, CoA (n = 30). The levels of plasma lipid peroxide (LPO), erythrocyte membrane microviscosity (EMMV), LDH, CPK, GOT and ECG in each patient were determined before and after one course of treatments respectively. The results revealed that before treatment the levels of plasma LPO and EMMV in both groups increased significantly compared with those of normal controls (n = 30, P < 0.01) respectively. There was a close correlation between LPO and EMMV (r = 0.6774, P < 0.01) and a close correlation between LPO and LDH (r = 0.5703, P < 0.01). After one course, the levels of plasma LPO and EMMV in both groups decreased significantly (compared with those before treatment, P < 0.01, respectively). But the LPO level and EMMV in group I were much higher than those in normal controls yet (P < 0.05, respectively). And LDH, GOT and ECG in nearly half of the patients in group I did not recover after one course while most patients in group II recovered. The results suggested that free radical plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AVM. SM as a good antioxidant, could protect myocardium from repairing membrane damage and clearing away free radical. This provided a new approach to treatment of viral myocarditis.
Peng ZS, Rao RS, Gong ZF. Clinical effects of perfusing drugs into hepatic artery to promote blood circulation in late stage of hepatocarcinoma.Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1993 Jun;13(6):330-2, 323
Abstract: The sophisticated technology of hepatic artery catheterization was used since 1990 in treating exacerbated patient after chemotherapy, 4-8 ml Salvia miltiorrhizae composita injection with 20 ml of 10% glucose was used. The same Chinese herbal drug based on Syndrome Differentiation as well as Western drug to relieve the symptoms was used in both treated and control groups. After two treatment courses, the symptom of treated group was relieved, the tumor mass shrunk and the biochemical parameters improved, the total effective rate was 65%, while that of control group was 25%, the difference between two groups was very significant, P < 0.01. This result suggests that is one of effective methods which worth further investigation.
Qin JZ, Wang XC. Effect of radix Salviae miltiorrhizae on calcium, zinc, copper content in serum, callus and bony tissue in early stage of healing process in rat closed tibial fracture. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1992 Jun;12(6):354-6, 325-6
Abstract: Changes of calcium, zinc, copper contents in serum,
callus and bony tissue in the early stage of the healing process of rat
closed tibial fracture, also the changes of them with radix Salviae miltiorrhizae
(RSM) treatment were studied. It was found that calcium, zinc contents
and Zn/Cu ratio increased significantly and the rise of serum copper content
was inhibited by the administration of RSM after fracture. Zn/Cu ratio
in fracture callus was correlated to the calcium content in fracture callus.
These findings suggested that the effect of the promotion of RSM on fracture
healing was related to the increased zinc content in serum, also related
to the acceleration of mobilization of zinc in fractured bone, and to the
acceleration of fracture callus formation and mineralization process by
the increased zinc and Zn/Cu ratio in the callus of the fracture.
Shao GF. Changes in gerbil brain tissue following cerebral ischemia and postischemic reperfusion and studies of the effects of the Chinese drugs. Chung Hua Shen Ching Ching Shen Ko Tsa Chih 1992 Dec;25(6):347-50, 383-4
Abstract: With the animal model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion,
we conducted experiments on such model to study the effects of Ligustrazine(LZ)
and Salvia Miltirrhizae(SM). The results obtained are as follows: (1) The
ischemic brain showed hyperperfusion (congestion period) after 10 min reperfusion
following 50 min of ischemia, and then entered a delayed hypoperfusion
period after 60 minutes reperfusion and afterward the hypoperfusion was
remained till the end of 120 min reperfusion. (2) Following 50 min of ischemic
insult, ATP and glucose contents in brain tissue were almost depleted and
much of lactate accumulated. Although rapid recovery of energy metabolism
occurred within 60 min of reperfusion, a secondary deterioration emerged
at 120 min of reperfusion. (3) Apparent brain edema occurred after cerebral
ischemia and its further development was observed at the early stage of
reperfusion owing to congestive response. Despite the degree of brain edema
alleviated obviously after 60 min of reperfusion, the condition become
worse at 120 min of reperfusion, which was accompanied by secondary metabolic
deterioration. (4) Experimental results showed that LZ and SM could significantly
elevate rCBF during the delayed hypoperfusion period, and limit the development
of secondary deterioration in energy metabolism and brain edema after 120
min of reperfusion. (5) Notably, LZ and SM had no significant effect on
MABP when these two Chinese drugs manifested their therapeutic actions
in the animal model of cerebral ischemia.
Sun C, Chen D, Qu Z, Hao J, Wang J. Protective effects of radix Salviae miltiorrhizae on azathioprine hepatotoxicity in rats.Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih 1996 Aug;21(8):496-8, 512
Abstract: The changes of liver function and malondialdehyde (MDA)
and glutathione (GSH) were studied in rats intoxicated with azathioprine
(Aza) 15mg/(kg.d) and in rats treated with Aza mixed Salviae 8g/(kg.d).
The results showed that in the Aza group, the levels of ALT, AKP, MDA increased
and GSH decreased significantly in week 1 and week 2. But in the Salviae
group the levels of ALT, AKP, MDA decreased and GSH increased significantly,
approaching the normal levels, It follows that Salviae has protective effects
on Aza hepatotoxicity in rats.
Sun B, Yuan Y, Zhang W, Che D. Effects of hypoxic endothelial
cell conditioned medium on proliferation and collagen synthesis of smooth
muscle cells and inhibitory effects of radix salviae miltiorrhizae.Chin
Med J (Engl) 1995 Nov;108(11):855-8
Tao YY. Effects of Salvia miltiorrhizae compositae on phosphoinositides metabolism in acute myocardial ischemiaChung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1993 Jun;13(6):354-5, 326
Abstract: The effects of Salvia miltiorrhizae compositae (SMC)
on phosphoinositides metabolism of acute myocardial ischemia in rats were
studied. The results showed that the function of the phosphoinositide signaling
system was enhanced 10 min. after acute myocardial ischemia. Both of the
accumulations of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate (PIP2) and inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate
(IP3) were higher than those of the non-ischemic control group (P <
0.01, n = 7). The rise of the levels of PIP2 and IP3 caused by acute myocardial
ischemia was remarkably inhibited by the SMC (2g/kg body wt.), and the
levels of PIP2 and IP3 were lower than those of the ischemic group (P <
0.01, n = 7).
Wang WC. Effect of Salvia miltiorrhizae in the treatment of 36 infantile acute toxic myocarditis.Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1993 Nov;13(11):665-6, 645
Abstract: Control observation of infantile acute toxic myocarditis
treated by Salvia miltiorrhizae (SM) showed that 36 cases were clinically
cured through SM treatment. The total effects have obvious advantages over
Western Medicine control group, P < 0.01. The period of hospitalization
and ECG normalization, of control group was significantly longer than that
of SM treated group, P < 0.001 respectively.
Wang Z, Zhang H, You H. The effect of 764-3 on platelet aggregation
and the activity of enzymes in arachidonic acid metabolism. Chung Kuo
I Hsueh Ko Hsueh Yuan Hsueh Pao 1994 Apr;16(2):140-3
Kuang P, Xiang J. Effect of radix salviae miltiorrhizae on EAA and IAA during cerebral ischemia in gerbils: a microdialysis study.J Tradit Chin Med 1994 Mar;14(1):45-50
Abstract: The concentrations of amino acids (AA), stroke index
and infarct area were determined in 26 gerbils which were divided into
3 groups: RSM-treated (n = 8), Saline-treated (n = 10) and sham-operated
(n = 8). The levels of AA were measured with microdialysis technique in
cerebral cortex. The concentrations of neurotransmitter AA, as Glu and
GABA and Asp, were significantly increased during the first 60 min after
CCA ligation, while the concentrations of non-neurotransmitter AA, as Thr
and Ser, had no significant changes. In RSM-treated gerbils, the level
of Glu was significantly lower than that of the saline-treated, but the
GABA in RSM-treated was significantly higher than that of the saline-treated.
The ratio of Glu/GABA was significantly decreased after ischemia. The RSM
could improve the reduction of ratio of Glu/GABA during 0-30 min and 91-120
min after cerebral ischemia. There were statistically significant decrease
in terms of stroke index in RSM-treated group when compared with saline-treated
group at 24 h and 16 h after CCA ligation respectively. The RSM has a tendency
to decrease the size of infarct area, but no statistical difference. The
results suggest that the neurotransmitter AA involve in the pathophysiological
procedures of cerebral ischemia and the RSM can attenuate dysfunctions
of EAA and IAA. Furthermore, the results also imply that there may be an
alternate way to treat cerebral ischemia by inhibiting the presynaptic
releasing of Glu and stimulating the releasing of GABA.
Wang ZL. Experimental study of preventing liver cirrhosis by using four kinds of Chinese herbs.Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1992 Jun;12(6):357-8
Abstract: 55 rats were divided into six groups; (1) normal control,
(2) cirrhosis control, (3-6) Chinese herbs groups, 2-6 groups were liver
cirrhosis model caused by combined factor dominated by CCl4, and 3-6 groups
were given Chinese herbs simultaneously until the end of sixth week. Radix
Salviae miltlorrhizae (RSM) were used in group 3, Flos Carthami (FC) in
group 4, Radix Angelicae sinensis (RAS) in group 5, Semen persicae (SP)
in group 6. The results: in group 2, 7 out of 9 rats developed into cirrhosis,
the degree of fibrosis was 2.55+ and collagen protein content was 35.3
mg/g.liver, SGPT 387u. In group 3(RSM), no cirrhosis was found, the degree
of the fibrosis was 0.43+ (compared with group 2, P < 0.01, collagen
protein content was 16.7 mg/g.liver (P < 0.01), SGPT 132u (P < 0.01).
In group 4(FC), 8 out of 9 rats did not develop into cirrhosis, collagen
content 21.1 mg/g.liver, compared with group 2, P < 0.05. In the group
of 5 and 6, some rats were developed into cirrhosis. The result showed
that RSM and FC possessed an inhibitory effect on fibrogenesis. The effect
of RSM was remarkable. It could prevent experimental cirrhosis. The effect
of RAS and SP were uncertain. This experiment predicted that RAM would
become the promising drug to restrain chronic hepatic disease from developing
into cirrhosis clinically.
Wang L, Huang X, Ding Z, Chen H, Peng R, Yuan G, Zhou D. The effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza and polysaccharide sulphate on the adhesion of erythrocytes of the patients with cerebral thrombosis to cultured endothelial cells. Hua Hsi I Ko Ta Hsueh Hsueh Pao 1995 Dec;26(4):381-5
Abstract: Salvia miltiorrhiza and polysaccharide sulphate are
commonly prescribed for curing cerebral vascular diseases. In this study,
we found that the adhesion of erythrocytes of the patients with cerebral
thrombosis to cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells was decreased
in number and intensity after the erythrocytes were treated with salvia
miltiorrhiza and polysaccharide sulphate in flow field. Moreover we found
that polysaccharide sulphate was more effective than salvia miltiorrhiza
in preventing adherence in common doses. The two drugs' effects of preventing
adherence might be an important mechanism for curing the patients with
Wang RQ, Chen JZ, Ren GY. Intraperitoneal perfusion of compound injection of salvia miltiorrhiza with dachengqi decoction in treating adhesive intestinal obstruction.Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1994 Oct;14(10):595-7
Abstract: 47 cases of adhesive intestinal obstruction after decompression operation were treated with intraperitoneal perfusion of compound injection of Salvia Miltiorrhizam intraperitoneally before closing the abdominal cavity and Dachengqi decoction oral given post-operatively. Follow up study for 2-9 years showed the effective rate was 100% except one case died of other unrelevant disease. Another 38 cases of the same disease and same operation procedure were selected as the control group, which were given antibiotics intraperitoneally before closing the abdominal cavity. The effective rate was 73.38%. The result in the therapeutic group was significantly better than that in the control group (P < 0.01).
Controlled clinical trial
Abstract: We investigated the effect of the Chinese herb Injectio
Salvia Miltiorrhizae (ISM) on human platelet function in vitro. ISM inhibited
platelet aggregation and serotonin release induced by either ADP or epinephrine
in a dose dependent manner. This effect of ISM was observed with both gel-filtered
platelets (ID50 = 8-30 micrograms ISM/ml gel-filtered platelets) and platelets
in plasma (ID50 = 400-900 micrograms ISM/ml of platelet-rich plasma). The
active molecule(s) in ISM was heat stable, resistant to acid, base and
proteolysis and fractionated on Sephadex 6-25 at MW approximately 280.
ISM did not interact with the platelet alpha-adrenergic receptor, but increased
cAMP in intact platelets. The results are consistent with the concept that
ISM inhibition of platelet aggregation and release is mediated by an increase
in platelet cAMP. The exact mechanism whereby ISM increases platelet cAMP
appears to be that of inhibition of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. The effect
of ISM on platelet function is one mechanism which might explain the therapeutic
effect of ISM in experimental and clinical coronary artery disease.
Wasser S, Ho JM, Ang HK, Tan CE.
Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatic fibrosis occurs as a result
of injury to the liver parenchyma and biliary system. We have studied the
effect of the traditional Chinese medicinal herb, Salvia miltiorrhiza,
in an experimental model of hepatic fibrosis and evaluated its effect on
various paradigms involved in hepatic fibrosis. METHODS: Liver fibrosis
was induced in male Wistar rats by chronic administration of carbon tetrachloride
for 10 weeks. The carbon tetrachloride-treated rats were randomly assigned
to three groups: no treatment, Salvia for 12 weeks from the onset of carbon
tetrachloride treatment, and Salvia for 2 weeks after the completion of
the 10-week course. The normal control groups in the study were: neither
carbon tetrachloride nor Salvia, and Salvia only for 12 weeks. The livers
were graded histologically and analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase
chain reaction for the transcription of genes involved in liver fibrosis,
namely, transforming growth factor-beta1 and the extracellular matrix components
procollagens I and III, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and matrix
metalloproteinase-13. The transcripts were normalized against that of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
dehydrogenase and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: The histological evaluation
showed that Salvia could reverse the fibrosis caused by carbon tetrachloride
treatment. Rats treated with the herb had reduced levels of transforming
growth factor-beta1, procollagens I and III and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1
transcripts and an increased level of matrix metalloproteinase-13 transcript,
when compared to the disease control. CONCLUSION: Salvia miltiorrhiza,
a cheap and widely available herb, significantly reduces carbon tetrachloride-induced
hepatic fibrosis in rats.
Wei XD, Li L, Bai J. Effect of Salvia miltiorrhizae Composita on erythrocyte membrane phospholipid in patients with coronary heart diseaseChung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1997 Jun;17(6):336-8
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the function of phospholipid
metabolism in pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD) and the effect
of Salvia miltiorrhizae Composita (SMC) on it. METHODS: The levels of erythrocyte
membrane phospholipid, blood lipid peroxide (LPO), superoxide dismutase
(SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were determined in the patients
with CHD by Thinlayer chromatography and fluorimetry during the treatment
of SMC. RESULTS: Sphingomyelins (SM), phosphatidyl serine (PS), phosphatidyl
ethanolamine (PE) and lysophosphatide (LL) of erythrocyte membrane phospholipid
were increased in patients with CHD. Phosphatidyl cholines (PC) was lower
than control group. Among them, the ratios of SM/PC and PS/PC were significantly
higher. In the patients with CHD, LPO was significantly increased and ratios
of SOD/LPO and GSH-Px/LPO significantly decreased. After the treatment
with SMC, LL, SM, PS and PE of erythrocyte phospholipid and the ratios
of SM/PC and PS/PC and LPO were decreased. PC and SOD/LPO were increased.
CONCLUSIONS: The abnormality of erythrocyte membrane phospholipid participate
the occurrence and development of CHD. SMC might improve the abnormality
of erythrocyte phospholipid and lipid peroxide and possess the effect of
regulating phospholipid metabolism.
Wei ZM. Effects of injection Salviae miltiorrhizae on senile chronic asthmatic bronchitis patients.Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1996 Jul;16(7):402-4
Abstract: The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of Injection Salviae Miltiorrhizae on the senile patients suffering from chronic asthmatic bronchitis. Fifty-three patients were divided randomly into group A(treated group, 33 cases) and group B(control group, 20 cases). The results showed that in group A, the treatment could ameliorate the symptoms, improve the pulmonary function, lower the PaCO2, elevate the PaO2 and enhance the immune function. They were markedly effective in 26 cases, effective in 6 cases and ineffective in 1 case. The cases in control group were 11, 8, 1 and 95% respectively. There was a significant difference between the effectiveness of the two groups.
Randomized controlled trial
Wu W, Kuang P, Li Z. ET-1 gene expression of rat brain during ischemia
and reperfusion and the protective effect of radix Salviae miltiorrhizae.
J Tradit Chin Med 1997 Mar;17(1):59-64 Abstract: Endothelin-1
(ET-1) gene expression of rat brain during ischemia and reperfusion as
well as the effect of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM) were studied with
in situ hybridization. It was found that ET-1 gene expression of cerebral
cortex and caudate-putamen was markedly increased both in 24 hours of ischemia
and 24 hours of reperfusion groups (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). In RSM-treated
rats, although the ET-1 gene expressions of ischemia and reperfusion sides
were also increased as compared with contralateral cortex and caudate-putamen,
they were significantly lower in RSM-treated rats than those of controls
(P < 0.05, P < 0.01 respectively). The present study indicated that
RSM can partly inhibit ET-1 gene expression of cerebral cortex and caudate-putamen
during ischemia and reperfusion. This may be one of the protective mechanisms
of RSM on cerebral ischemia and reperfusion.
Wu W, Kuang P, Li Z. Effect of radix Salviae miltiorrhizae on the gene expression of nitric oxide synthase in ischemic rat brains.J Tradit Chin Med 1998 Jun;18(2):128-33
Abstract: The effect of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM) on
the gene expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in rat brains during
ischemia was studied with in situ hybridization and the results were analyzed
with IBAS 2000 Image Analysis System. It was found that NOS gene expression
of cerebral cortex and caudate-putamen was markedly increased in 24 hours
in ischemia group (P < 0.01). In RSM-treated rats, although the NOS
gene expression of ischemic side was also increased as compared with contralateral
cortex and caudate-putamen, it was significantly lower in RSM-treated rats
than those of the controls (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The present study
indicates that RSM can partly inhibit NOS gene expression of cerebral cortex
and caudate-putamen during ischemia. This may be one of the protective
mechanisms of RSM on cerebral ischemia.
Wu W, Kuang P, Li Z. Protective effect of radix Salviae miltiorrhizae on apoptosis of neurons during focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury. J Tradit Chin Med 1997 Sep;17(3):220-5
Abstract: We have found that Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM)
plays a protective role in ischemic brain injury, which attracted us to
investigate the effect of RSM on apoptosis of neurons during cerebral ischemia
and reperfusion. The apoptotic cells in ischemic brains at different reperfusion
intervals were tested with the method of TdT-mediated dUTP-DIG nick end
labeling (TUNEL), and the effect of RSM on the apoptosis of neurons was
studied in left middle cerebral artery (LMCA) occlusion in rat models (n
= 18). The results showed that few scattered apoptotic cells were observed
in right cerebral hemisphere after LMCA occlusion and reperfusion, and
that a lot of apoptotic cells were found in left ischemic cerebral cortex
and caudoputamen at 12 h reperfusion, and they reached peak at 24-48 h
reperfusion. However, in rats pretreated with RSM, the number of apoptotic
cells in left cortex and caudoputamen reduced significantly and the neuronal
damage was much milder at 24 h reperfusion as compared with those of saline-treated
rats. From this study, we conclude that administration of RSM can reduce
the apoptotic of neurons induced by cerebral ischemia and reperfusion and
afford significant cerebroprotection in the model of focal cerebral ischemia
Wu W, Qiu F. Experimental study on ischemia and reperfusion injury of rat liver and effects of ligustrazine and salvia compound. Chin Med Sci J 1994 Sep;9(3):162-6
Abstract: The present study was to investigate changes of free
radicals in the whole rat liver, changes of ATP levels of hepatic cells,
ultrastructural changes in hepatic tissue during ischemia and reperfusion
in rats and the effects of ligustrazine and salvia compound. The results
indicated that: 1) the free radical levels increased by 8.3-fold and 9.0-fold
in the groups with 30 and 60 min ischemia after 40 min reperfusion, as
compared with the group with ischemia only (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively).
2) The levels of ATP returned to normal in the group with 30 min ischemia
after reperfusion for 40 min and 3 d, remained low in the group with 90
min ischemia and fell again after a mild increase in the group with 60
min ischemia. 3) The hepatic and endothelial cell damage after ischemia
became more severe after reperfusion, as revealed by electron microscopy.
The present study also showed that ligustrazine and salvia compound have
protective effects against reperfusion injury. They can be used to scavenge
free radicals, improve hepatic microcirculation and alleviate hepatic and
endothelial cell damage.
Xi SC, Che DY, Zhang WR. The inhibitory effect of radix Salviae miltiorrhizae
on hypoxic structural remodeling of intra-acinar pulmonary arteries. J
Tongji Med Univ 1994;14(3):148-52
Xie M, Jin ZY, Ye GH. Clinical research of compound salviae miltiorrhizae injection for severe pancreatitis.Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1995 May;15(5):269-70
Abstract: Compound salviae miltiorrhizae injection was administered after operation for 28 cases of severe pancreatitis, and 13 cases were taken as a control group. The results showed that: (1) the difference was not obvious in the morbidity of complications between the two groups, but the mortality (3.6%) of the trial group was significantly lower than that (30.8%) of the control group (P < 0.05); (2) Hematocrit was clearly decreased from 46.1 +/- 5.2% to 33.2 +/- 3.9% in the trial one (P < 0.05), but platelet and hemoglobin showed no statistical significance. It is concluded that compound salviae miltiorrhiza injection might improve hemorheologic abnormalities of the disease, promote the recovery of the pancreatic tissue, and correct the serious complications such as adult respiratory distress syndrome etc.
abstract: Twenty-four patients of coronary heart disease(CHD)
were treated with Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) and the change of SM on serum
lipid peroxide (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) after treatment were observed.
The results were compared with that of control group consisted of 20 healthy
persons, it showed that before treatment, the serum LPO of patient was
significantly higher than that of control group and the SOD of patient
was lower than that of healthy subjects (P < 0.01). After treated with
SM, the LPO level decreased and SOD activity increased significantly. The
mechanism might be correlated with the effect of SM in inhibiting platelets
aggregation, reducing blood viscosity, improving myocardial ischemia and
protecting cytomembrane. It suggested that SM could be regarded as a good
exogenous scavenger of oxygen free radical.
Xiong LL. Therapeutic effect of combined therapy of Salvia miltiorrhizae and Polyporus umbellatus polysaccharide in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B.Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1993 Sep;13(9):533-5, 516-7
Abstract: 90 patients of chronic hepatitis B with positive HBV replication markers and abnormality of ALT were randomly allocated to 3 groups. 30 cases were treated with Salvia miltiorrhizae (SM) and Polyporus Umbellatus polysaccharide (PUP) as group I, 30 cases were treated with SM solely as group II and 30 cases were treated with PUP only as group III. By the end of 3 months in the treatment course, normalization rate of ALT were 80.0%, 40.0% and 53.3% and the negative conversion rate of HBeAg were 56.7%, 50.0% and 16.7% in the group I, II and III respectively. Follow up for 3 months after the end of therapy, ALT level was normal in 82.6%, 42.7% and 59.1% respectively. HBeAg was negative in 60.9%, 52.4% and 22.7%. Follow up for 9 months after the end of the treatment, ALT was normal in 83.3%, 43.8% and 56.3%. HBeAg was negative in 66.7%, 56.3% and 25.0% respectively. These results showed that combined therapy with SM and PUP might be more potent than SM and PUP therapy alone.
Xu ZC. Effect of injection Salvia miltiorrhizae on peritoneal dialysis. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1993 Feb;13(2):74-6, 67
Abstract: Effective volume of blood flow of peritoneal capillary
is an important factor influencing the efficiency of peritoneal dialysis.
Injection of Salvia miltiorrhizae (ISM) could dilate the blood vessels
and improve microcirculation. The effect of peritoneal dialysis with three
kinds of dialytic fluid was studied. The dialysate of first group contained
ISM, the second used dialysate only, the third contained dopamine. The
result found that ISM could markedly increase the clearance rate and ultrafiltration
rate of the peritoneum to creatinine, urea nitrogen and uric acid. Three
concentrations of ISM (4%, 6%, 8%) were also compared. This comparison
showed that 6% injection of ISM was the optimal concentration.
Yan L, Wei J, Wu H, Chen H, Zhong G, Li L, Chen L, Li K, Tan J. The role of hemorheologic changes in the pathogenesis of acute hemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis.Hua Hsi I Ko Ta Hsueh Hsueh Pao 1990 Mar;21(1):25-9
Abstract: The hemorheologic alterations were studied in experimental
acute hemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis (AHNP) which was induced by
injection of 5% sodium taurocholate into the main pancreatic duct. The
results showed that during the early stage of AHNP, all of hemorheologic
parameters were significantly elevated, and continually increased at the
rest intervals. The authors suggested that the blood viscosity and hematocrit
increase, red blood cells tend to aggregate, and erythrocyte deformation
decrease are the causation of pancreatic microcirculatory disturbances
and promoting pancreatic progressive necrosis. After using low molecular
dextran and Salvia miltiorrhizae, the hemorheologic alterations in AHNP
were recovered, and the histologic observation improved. Our data indicate
the hemorheologic disturbances is one of the key factors in the pathogenesis
Yang DP. Prevention of reperfusion injury of an ischemic flap: an experimental study.Chung Hua Cheng Hsing Shao Shang Wai Ko Tsa Chih 1992 Sep;8(3):216-7, 249
Abstract: Oxygen-derived free radicals are important mediators
of tissue injury in experimental island skin flaps that have been subjected
to prolonged ischemia (vascular occlusion) followed by reperfusion. In
this study, the role of oxygen free radical scavenger, SOD, and a herb,
salvia miltiorrhiza, in the protection of cellular damages during total
ischemia and reperfusion was study in the epigastric island skin flaps
in experimental rats with electron microscopy and the assessment of survival
of the flaps. Control flaps subjected to 10 hours of total vascular occlusion
showed a high incidence of necrosis when followed for 7 days following
release of the vascular occlusion. Treatment with superoxide dismutase
and salvia miltiorrhiza prior to the onset of reperfusion significantly
enhanced island flap survival to 72.5% (P < 0.001) and to 64.2% (P <
0.05), respectively. The conclusions are: 1. Reperfusion for 10 hours following
ischemia for 8 hours in the epigastric island flaps of the rats greatly
exaggerated the original injury. 2. SOD and salvia miltiorrhiza may protect
the flaps from such injury considerably and enhanced flap survival.
Yang Y, Wang L, Li L, Chen H. The effects of salvia miltiorrhiza, polysaccharide sulphate, dextran 40 and mannitol on the viscoelasticity properties of red blood cell suspension.Hua Hsi I Ko Ta Hsueh Hsueh Pao 1993 Jun;24(2):143-6
Abstract: In vitro, the effects of Dextran 40(DX40), mannitol,
salvia miltiorrhiza and polysaccharide Sulphate (PSS) on the viscoelasticity
properties of red cell suspensions were studied. The results demonstrated
that when the concentration of the drugs increased, mannitol increased
eta 5 x 96, eta 51 x 2, eta', eta" and G', and DX 40 increased the values
of eta' eta" and G', but it had no obvious effect on eta 5 x 96 and eta
51 x 2; salvia miltiorrhiza and PSS had no obvious effect on eta 5 x 96,
eta 51 x 2, eta', eta'' and G'. However, the average values of eta', eta''
and G' of Salvia miltiorrhiza and PSS groups were lower than those of DX
40 and Mannitol groups. Clinically, these four drugs in treatment doses
might improve viscoelasticity properties of whole blood. For treating the
ischemic cerebral vascular diseases and hyperviscosity syndromes, Salvia
miltiorrhiza and PSS could be infused faster, but DX40 and mannitol should
be infused slowly.
Yokozawa T, Chung HY, Oura H, Nonaka G, Nishioka I. Isolation of a renal function-facilitating constituent from the Oriental drug, salviae miltiorrhizae radix. Nippon Jinzo Gakkai Shi 1989 Oct;31(10):1091-8
Abstract: An attempt was made to isolate the active component
which exhibits an improving effect on renal function from Salviae Miltiorrhazae
Radix (Chinese crude drug). Systematic isolation from aqueous extract of
Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix was carried out, and Compound 1 was found to
be more effective than any of the other constituents in improving renal
functional parameters; that is, a marked reduction of glomerular filtration
rate following adenine ingestion was improved by administration of this
substance. The renal plasma flow and renal blood flow were also increased
in renal failure rats. On the basis of chemical and spectroscopic data,
Compound 1 was shown to be identical with magnesium lithospermate B.
Yu ZP, Jiang JX, Zhu LH, Li Z, Guo XH. Effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge on isolated perfused liver and portal vein of rats. Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih 1992 Dec;17(12):749-51, 764
Abstract: The experiment results showed that Salvia miltiorrhiza
(SMB) had a protective effect on the isolated perfused liver injured by
CCl4 of rats, made the activity of GPT in perfusate of SMB group lower
than that of intoxicated groups and relieved the hepato-pathohistologic
lesions of SMB group as compared to the intoxicated group. SMB had no significant
effects on both the activities of SGPT in vitro and the portal vein of
Yu S, Kuang P, Kanazawa T, Onodera K, Metoki H, Oike Y. The effects of radix Salviae miltiorrhizae on lipid accumulation of peroxidized low density lipoprotein in mouse peritoneal macrophages--lipid analysis and morphological studies. J Tradit Chin Med 1998 Dec;18(4):292-9
Abstract: Mouse peritoneal macrophages were incubated in DMEM
with pox-LDL and Rradix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM) to investigate the
effects of RSM on the internalization of peroxidized low density lipoprotein
(pox-LDL) by using lipid analysis and electron microscopy. Lipid peroxide
(LPO) concentrations were increased slightly in the medium after incubation
of macrophages with normal LDL (n-LDL), while decreased significantly in
the media after incubation of macrophages with pox-LDL. In the three groups
with pox-LDL, it could be found that there was a dose-dependent decrease
of concentrations of LPO and total cholesterol (TCH) in the two RSM groups,
and the decrease in the two RSM groups was much greater than in the group
without RSM. RSM accelerated a more decrease of LPO than cholesterol contents
in the media containing pox-LDL. The ultrastructural studies also showed
that RSM induced the accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of
mouse peritoneal macrophages. The results suggested that RSM could accelerate
the phagocytosis and degradation of pox-LDL by macrophages.
Yuan QL, Li Y, Chang LF, He GB. Effect of naomaitong on basilar artery rings and portal vein strips. Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih 1993 Jul;18(7):433-5, 448
Abstract: Both Naomaitong and single salvia miltiorrhiza inhibit
the contraction of rabbit basilar artery rings evoked by CaCl2 and KC1
and have nonspecific antagonism against the quantity effect curve of CaCl2.
Naomaitong and single salvia miltiorrhiza also inhibit the contraction
of rabbit basilar artery rings evoked by KC1. Clearly the inhibitory function
of the former is greater than that of the latter. But on the myogenic activity
of portal vein strips in rats Naomaitong has light inhibitive effect while
salvia miltiorrhiza has not.
Zhang X, Kuang P, Wu W, Yin X, Kanazawa T, Onodera K, Metoki H, Oike Y. The effect of radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae Composita on peroxidation of low density lipoprotein due to copper dichloride. J Tradit Chin Med 1994 Sep;14(3):195-201
Abstract: It is well known that plasma lipoprotein, particularly
oxidized LDL, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis
and atherosclerotic diseases. We used oxidized LDL generated by incubating
LDL from healthy persons with copper dichloride as a model to investigate
the antioxidate property of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae Composita (RSMC).
On photos, the spot X1 and the spot X2 were clearly found in the control
group after the dialysis into copper dichloride for 24 and 48 hours, but
they could not found in the RSMC group. The analysis of the constituents
of lipids in LDL (by charring method) showed that after dialysis the percentages
of the spot X1 and the spot X2 in the RSMC group were significantly lower
than those in the control group (P < 0.01). The results suggest that
RSMC plays a potential role in antioxidation of lipids or LDL.
Zhang X, Wu W, Kuang P, Takemichi K, Kogo O, Hirobumi M, Yasaburo O. The effect of radix salviae miltiorrhizae composita and ligustrazine on lipid peroxidation in low density lipoprotein due to copper dichloride.J Tradit Chin Med 1994 Dec;14(4):292-7
Abstract: It is well known that lipid peroxide in low density
lipoprotein (LDL) plays an important role in atherosclerosis and atherosclerotic
diseases. We used oxidized LDL generated by incubating LDL from healthy
persons with copper dichloride as a model to investigate the anti-lipid-peroxide
property of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae Composita (RSMC) and ligustrazine.
The changes in concentrations of lipid peroxide and lipids in LDL due to
Cu++ were studied, and the effects of RSMC and ligustrazine on the changes
were studied. The results in our study indicate that RSMC has a potential
role on anti-lipid-peroxidation, but it was not found that ligustrazine
has similar anti-peroxidation action.
Zhang L, Cai L, Zhang W. A pathological survey of the therapeutic effect on experimental hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.Chung Hua Ping Li Hsueh Tsa Chih 1996 Apr;25(2):102-4
Abstract: Rat models of the acute and recuperative phases of
hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) were established beginning by the
7th day after birth through ischemia and hypoxia. The prophylatic and therapeutic
effects on experimental HIE were studied by the application of radix salviae
miltiorrhizae, flunarizine and hyperbaric oxygen. Experimental data indicated
that among these measures, radix salviae miltiorrhizae gave a better result
and the pathological change in the prophylactic and therapeutic groups
particularly the result of the latter one were light serious than those
of the control group.
Zhang PT, Chen ZR. Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza on lipid peroxidation antioxidant enzymes activity in patients with chronic cor pulmonale. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1994 Aug;14(8):474-7
Abstract: This paper studied the effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) on plasma lipid peroxidation (LPO), RBC superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) activity in patients with chronic cor pulmonale. 30 patients were randomly divided into two treatment groups (routine and SM). The four parameters have been measured in 22 healthy subjects as control and patients of two treatment groups. The results showed: (1) Before treatment both treatment groups had significantly higher LPO and SOD and markedly lower GSH-Px and CAT level than that of healthy control (P < 0.001) respectively. (2) After treatment in routine group the four parameters have normalized, P < 0.05. (3) Routine treatment was compared with SM treatment, except SOD, the other three parameters were significantly different between two treatment groups (P < 0.001). The increased levels of GSH-Px and CAT and the decreased LPO were significantly greater in SM group than routine treatment (P < 0.001). The above-mentioned results indicated patients with cor pulmonale in acute exacerbation their lipid peroxide reaction was enhanced, the antioxidant enzymes lost their balance. SM could attenuate markedly lipid peroxide reaction, adjust the imbalance of the three antioxidant enzymes, enhance body's defence capability against damage of active oxygen free radical induced lipid peroxidation.
Zhao BL, Jiang W, Zhao Y, Hou JW, Xin WJ. Scavenging effects of salvia miltiorrhiza on free radicals and its protection for myocardial mitochondrial membranes from ischemia-reperfusion injury.Biochem Mol Biol Int 1996 May;38(6):1171-82
Abstract: Using low temperature electron spin resonance (ESR)
technique, we found that Salvia miltiorrhiza injection could scavenge the
oxygen free radicals generated from ischemia-reperfusion injury in the
myocardium as effectively as SOD. Using ESR spin trapping technique we
found that one of its effective components, Danshensu, could scavenge superoxide
anion free radicals generated from the reaction system of xanthine and
xanthine oxidase, and that lipid free radicals generated from lipid peroxidation
of myocardial mitochondrial membranes could be scavenged by another effective
component, Tanshinone. The membrane fluidity of the mitochondria isolated
from the ischemia-reperfused hearts was studied with the ESR spin labelling
technique, and the TBA-method was used to detect the lipid peroxidation.
It was found that Danshensu could protect the mitochondrial membrane from
the ischemia-reperfusion injury and lipid peroxidation.
Zhen Z, Guo Y, Zhang Z. Microthrombi in coronary heart disease.Chung Hua I Hsueh Tsa Chih 1995 May;75(5):266-9, 318
Abstract: Of 180 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) 43
(23.9%) showed in microthrombi conjunctival microcirculation. We compared
the healthy subjects with the patients with microthrombi and thrombi-free
as well as with the patients with microthrombi pre- and post-treatment
of heparin or salvia miltiorrhizae. The formation and the number of microthrombi
in the CHD patients were closely related to symptoms, ECGS, plasma TXB2,
6-kero-PGF1a and other indexes on hemodynamics. Follow-up of the patients
with microthrombi revealed that their death rate was higher than that of
CHD patients without microthrombi, especially in the sudden deaths. We
consider that microthrombi may be regarded as an important index of the
state, therapeutic efficacy, and prognosis of the CHD patients. The use
of heparin may certainly be based on the condition of the microthrombi
in the microcirculation of CHD patients.
Zheng XK. Effects of Salvia miltiorrhizae composite injection on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in rabbitsChung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1991 Dec;11(12):733-5, 710
Abstract: In the present experiment, the hemodynamic effect of
Salvia miltiorrhizae composite injection (SMCI) on pulmonary and systemic
circulation during hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension was observed.
The results showed that the pulmonary arterial pressure increased at first
in both group, then decreased gradually, but in SMCI group decreased much
more than in the control group. The pulmonary vascular resistance increased
very significantly in the control group, but in SMCI group considerably
decreased after administration, then keeping at a level little more than
the normal. Difference between groups was very significant. The stroke
volume increased slightly at first and then decreased persistently in the
control group, but increased significantly and kept at a higher level in
SMCI group. The protective effects of SMCI on hypoxic myocardium was studied
by observing ST-segment on ECG. It was found that the ST-segment fell in
both groups, but the degree of fall in SMCI was much less than in the control
group. It was found that the PaO2 was 35.1 +/- 2.6 in the control group,
38.1 +/- 2.4 in SMCI group. Difference between groups was significant (P
less than 0.05.) The above results suggest that SMCI can diminish hypoxic
pulmonary vasoconstriction, improve PaO2 in hypoxic animal and protect
hypoxic myocardium. Hence, SMCI can be used to prevent and treat hypoxic
pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Zhou XM, Lu ZY, Wang DW. Experimental study of Salvia miltiorrhiza on prevention of restenosis after angioplasty. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1996 Aug;16(8):480-2
Abstract: For evaluating the possibility of Salvia miltiorrhiza
(SM) on the prevention of arterial restenosis after angioplasty, we investigated
the effect of SM on the intimal thickening of air-injured carotid artery
of rats. The results showed that the maximal intimal thickness of the injured
arteries was much thinner in the treatment group than that in the control
group, indicated that SM could prevent experimental restenosis in rat model.
Furthermore, we examined the effect of SM on the proliferation of the isolated
rabbit arterial smooth muscle cells (SMC) cultivated in vitro. The results
showed that SM inhibited the 3H-TdR take-up and proliferation of SMC in
a dose-dependent manner. The study raised the possibility that SM could
be used to prevent arterial restenosis after angioplasty.
Zhu MD, Cai FY. Evidence of compromised circulation in the pathogenesis of optic nerve damage in chronic glaucomatous rabbit.Chin Med J (Engl) 1993 Dec;106(12):922-7
Abstract: The protective effect of improving the microcirculation
on the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and the ultrastructure of the optic
nerve after intravenous (i.v.) use of Salviae miltiorrhiza (SMR) was studied
in a chronic intraocular hypertension model in 36 rabbits. These rabbits
were treated with topical 0.5% timolol, or i.v. SMR or i.v. 0.9% saline
for 1, 3, 5 or 8 weeks. The intraocular pressure (IOP) was 19.6 +/- 2 mmHg
and the RGC density was 1140 +/- 121.2/mm2 in control rabbits. After one
week of intraocular hypertension (IOP between 30 and 40 mmHg), the RGC
densities decreased to between 650 and 820/mm2. Following the use of timolol
for 1 to 8 weeks, IOP returned to control level and the RGC density increased
to 1015 +/- 7/mm2. After treatment with i.v. saline for 8 weeks, the RGC
density decreased progressively from 651 +/- 1/mm2 at the beginning of
treatment to 83 +/- 3/mm2. The RGC density of those rabbits treated with
i.v. SMR for 8 weeks remained virtually unchanged (658 +/- 5/mm2) compared
to the RGC density at the beginning of the treatment. Severe ultrastructural
damage of optic nerve and collapsed capillaries were found in rabbits treated
with saline while these findings were mild in rabbits treated with SMR.
During these periods of treatment, the intraocular hypertension did not
decrease in rabbits treated with either saline or SMR. From these findings
and the fact that SMR improves local microcirculation, it is considered
that the compromised microcirculation is one of the mechanisms in the pathogenesis
of optic nerve damage in chronic glaucoma.
Yu CM; Chan JC; Sanderson JE. Chinese herbs and warfarin potentiation by 'danshen'.J Intern Med, 241(4):337-9 1997 Apr
Abstract: Drug interactions with warfarin can be dangerous and
although common drug interactions are now well recognized those with Chinese
herbs are not widely appreciated. 'Danshen' is a herbal medicine often
used for various complaints, particularly cardiovascular, in the Chinese
community. We report a case of danshen-induced overcoagulation with severe
and dangerous abnormalities of clotting in a patient with rheumatic heart
Abstract: 1. More than 300 coumarins have been identified from natural sources, especially green plants. The pharmacological and biochemical properties and therapeutic applications of simple coumarins depend upon the pattern of substitution. More complex related compounds based on the coumarin nucleus include the dicoumarol/warfarin anticoagulants, aflatoxins and the psoralens (photosensitizing agents). 2. Coumarin itself (1,2-benzopyrone) has long-established efficacy in slow-onset long-term reduction of lymphoedema in man, as confirmed in recent double-blind trials against elephantiasis and postmastectomy swelling of the arm. The mechanism of action is uncertain, but may involve macrophage-induced proteolysis of oedema protein. However, coumarin has low absolute bioavailability in man (< 5%), due to extensive first-pass hepatic conversion to 7-hydroxycoumarin followed by glucuronidation. It may, therefore, be a prodrug. 3. Scoparone (6,7-dimethoxycoumarin) has been purified from the hypolipidaemic Chinese herb Artemisia scoparia and shown to reduce the proliferative responses of human peripheral mononuclear cells, to relax smooth muscle, to reduce total cholesterol and triglycerides and to retard the characteristic pathomorphological changes in hypercholesterolaemic diabetic rabbits. Various properties of scoparone were suggested to account for these findings, including ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species, inhibition of tyrosine kinases and potentiation of prostaglandin generation. 4. Osthole (7-methoxy-8-[3-methylpent-2-enyl]coumarin) from Angelica pubescens, used also in Chinese medicine, causes hypotension in vivo, and inhibits platelet aggregation and smooth muscle contraction in vitro. It may interfere with calcium influx and with cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. 5. Cloricromene, a synthetic coumarin derivative, also possesses antithrombotic antiplatelet actions, inhibits PMN neutrophil function and causes vasodilatation. Some of these properties of cloricromene have been ascribed to inhibition of arachidonate release from membrane phospholipids. 6. Simple coumarins possessing ortho-dihydroxy functions, such as fraxetin and 4-methyldaphnetin, are potent inhibitors (low micromolar) of lipid peroxidation and scavengers of superoxide anion radicals and of aqueous alkylperoxyl radicals, but may be pro-oxidant (enhancing generation of hydroxyl radicals) in the presence of free iron ions. These coumarins also inhibit the proinflammatory 5-lipoxygenase enzyme at micromolar concentrations. Another related coumarin, 5,7-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin, is of special interest as it inhibits lipid peroxidation, and scavenges alkylperoxyl and superoxide radicals. Unlike most other simple coumarins studied, 5,7-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin also scavenges hypochlorous acid, and is a potent inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase, but is not pro-oxidant. 7. 5,7- and 6,7-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin both reduced the duration of ventricular fibrillation in postischaemic reperfused isolated perfused rat hearts (in which oxygen-derived free radicals are implicated), showing that these antioxidant coumarins possess beneficial properties in this pathophysiological model. 8. In view of the established low toxicity, relative cheapness, presence in the diet and occurrence in various herbal remedies of coumarins, it appears prudent to evaluate their properties and applications further.
Abstract: We report a case of profound anticoagulation caused by interaction between warfarin and danshen, a widely used Chinese herbal medicine, in a patient who had undergone mitral valve replacement. Patients taking warfarin should be warned not to take this herb. In addition, physicians should be alert to the possibility of an interaction with herbal medicine when anticoagulation control becomes difficult and no other causes are apparent.
Abstract: Dong quai is a Chinese herbal supplement touted for treatment of menstrual cramping, irregular menses, and menopausal symptoms. Phytochemical analyses found it to consist of natural coumarin derivatives, as well as constituents possessing antithrombotic, antiarrhythmic, phototoxic, and carcinogenic effects. A 46-year-old African-American woman with atrial fibrillation stabilized on warfarin experienced a greater than 2-fold elevation in prothrombin time and international normalized ratio after taking dong quai concurrently for 4 weeks. No identifiable cause was ascertained for the increase except dong quai. The patient's coagulation values returned to acceptable levels 1 month after discontinuing the herb. One animal study suggests a pharmacodynamic interaction between the product and warfarin, but the true mechanism remains unknown. Practitioners should be aware of the possibility of such an interaction and should inform patients of potential hazards of taking the two together.
Abstract: Chinese patients are reportedly more sensitive than Caucasians to the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. We examined warfarin dose requirements and their determinants in 151 Chinese out-patients on stable maintenance dose of warfarin with international normalized ratio of 2 to 2.5. Mean daily warfarin requirement was 3.3 +/- 1.4 mg, much lower than reported doses in Caucasian patients. The most important determinant was age (r = -0.43, p < 0.001), with progressively lower warfarin requirement with increasing age (p = 0.0001). There was a weaker association with body weight (r = 0.20, p = 0.01). Patients with chronic rheumatic heart disease tended to require a smaller dose than those with heart valve replacements (2.94 +/- 1.24 vs. 3.69 +/- 1.42 mg, p < 0.01). We confirm that Chinese patients require a smaller dose of warfarin for the same degree of anticoagulation. Age is the most important factor affecting dose requirement, although body weight and underlying disease also play a role.
Abstract: Little is known about the incidence and consequences of drug interactions in patients receiving warfarin. Hence, drug interactions as a cause of overanticoagulation and bleedings were determined in Chinese patients admitted to our medical unit during a 9-month period in 1994/95. Only patients with an admission international normalized ratio (INR) of > 3.0 (target range 2.0-2.5) were included since the drug interactions, if present, were more likely to be of clinical significance. Of 35 patients reviewed, 7 had a predisposing condition such as peptic ulcer and 19 received drugs or folk medicines that can interact with warfarin. Based on the temporal relationship between the initiation of the interacting agent(s) and the rise in INR/onset of bleedings, drug-warfarin interactions were definitely (n = 6) or possibly (n = 1) responsible in 7 patients (drugs for common cold 2, piroxicam plus piroxicam gel 2, medicated oil (15% methyl salicylate) plus Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge 1, "analgesic balm" (50% methyl salicylate) 1, diclofenac gel 1). These agents were prescribed by their physicians (n = 1), family doctors (n = 1) and other specialists (n = 1) or bought over-the-counter (n = 2). One other patient used the drugs from previous consultations. Five of the 7 patients developed bleedings. Drug interactions accounted for 20% of all patients with an INR of > 3.0 and 5 (36%) of 14 patients with bleedings. Patients receiving warfarin should be warned about the danger of self-medication. When prescribing warfarin, physicians should be aware of other medications that their patients are taking.
Abstract :Warfarin requirements are lower in the Chinese, but it is not known if this applies to heparin. We investigated the optimal dose for heparin therapy in Chinese patients, and to assess relationship between i.v. heparin dosage and anticoagulation efficacy. One hundred Chinese patients requiring intravenous heparin therapy were given an initial bolus followed by continuous intravenous infusion. The main outcome measures were: (i) Efficacy of anticoagulation assessed by blood coagulation studies (APTT) compared to heparin dosage, (ii) Determinants of dosage variation-age, gender, body weight, height, indication for heparin therapy and number of medications, other disease, and serum albumin level. It was found that the mean therapeutic infusion dose requirement of heparin was 848.7 +/- 274.7 units/h, 79% required a dose of 1000 units/h or less. Heparin dose correlated negatively with age (r = -0.40; p < 0.001) and positively with weight (r = 0.44 p < 0.001) and height (r = 0.49; p < 0.001). Chinese subjects require lower heparin doses (about 800 units/h) than usually recommended for Caucasians (usual dose 1000-1500 units/h). This can be partly explained by the lower body weight in Chinese patients.
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