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Collected Abstracts: Di Huang/Radix Rehmannia

Pharmacol Res 1999 Aug;40(2):171-6


Kim HM, An CS, Jung KY, Choo YK, Park JK, Nam SY

Department of Oriental Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Chonbuk, 570-749, South Korea.

[Medline record in process]

We investigated whether an aqueous extract of Rehmannia glutinosa steamed root (RGAE) inhibits secretion of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) from primary cultures of mouse astrocytes. RGAE dose-dependently inhibited the TNF-alpha secretion by astrocytes stimulated with substance P (SP) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). IL-1 has been shown to elevate TNF-alpha secretion from LPS-stimulated astrocytes while having no effect on astrocytes in the absence of LPS. We therefore investigated whether IL-1 mediated inhibition of TNF-alpha secretion from astrocytes by RGAE. Treatment of RGAE to astrocytes stimulated with both LPS+SP decreased IL-1 secretion. Moreover, incubation of astrocytes with IL-1 antibody abolished the synergistic cooperative effect of LPS+SP. These results suggest that RGAE may inhibits TNF-alpha secretion by inhibiting IL-1 secretion and that RGAE has an anti-inflammatory activity in the central nervous system curing some pathological disease states. 1999 Academic Press@p$hr Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

Yakugaku Zasshi 1998 Oct;118(10):464-75

[On the constituents of the root of fukuchiyama-jio, the hybrid of Rehmannia glutinosa var. purpurea and R. glutinosa forma hueichingensis].

[Article in Japanese]

Kitagawa I, Hori K, Kawanishi T, Kobayashi M, Kawanishi F

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Japan.

In order to characterize the pharmaceutical utility of the root of Fukuchiyama-jio, which was produced as the hybrid of Rehmannia glutinosa LIBOSCH. var. purpurea MAKINO (Akaya-jio in Japanese) and Rehmannia glutinosa LIBOSCH. forma hueichingensis HSIAO (Kaikei-jio in Japanese) (Scrophulariaceae), we have investigated the chemical constituents of the root of Fukuchiyama-jio in detail in comparison with those of Akaya-jio and Kaikei-jio. Chemical analysis as well as quantitative one by means of gas liquid chromatography (GLC) have shown that the root of Fukuchiyama-jio contains a larger amount of iridoid glucosides as compared with Akaya-jio and Kaikei-jio. During these chemical analyses, a new ionone glucoside named oxyrehmaionoside B (7) along with melasmoside (6) were isolated as the characteristic constituents of Fukuchiyama-jio and the structure of 7 has been determined.

Int J Immunopharmacol 1998 Apr-May;20(4-5):231-40

Effect of Rehmannia glutinosa on immediate type allergic reaction.

Kim H, Lee E, Lee S, Shin T, Kim Y, Kim J

Department of Oriental Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Chonbuk, South Korea.

We investigated the effect of aqueous extract of Rehmannia glutinosa steamed root (RGAE) on the allergic reactions in vivo and in vitro. RGAE dose-dependently inhibited systemic allergic reaction induced by compound 48/80. When RGAE was pre-treated at the same concentrations with systemic allergic reaction test, the plasma histamine levels were reduced in a dose-dependent manner. RGAE dose-dependently inhibited skin allergic reaction activated by anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE. RGAE also dose-dependently inhibited the histamine release from the rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) by compound 48/80 or anti-DNP IgE. Moreover, RGAE had significant inhibitory effect on anti-DNP IgE-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production of RPMC. These results indicate that RGAE may be beneficial in the regulation of immediate type allergic reaction.

Am J Chin Med 1998;26(1):73-82

Liu-wei-dihuang: a study by pulse analysis.

Wang WK, Hsu TL, Wang YY

Biophysics Laboratory, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.

Pulse analysis method was used in studying the traditional Chinese formula Liu-Wei-Dihuang as well as five of its main components (Rehmannia glutinosa, Cornus officinalis, Paeonia Suffruticosa, Poria cocos and Alisma plantogo-aquatica var oriental). Based on our recently developed resonance theory, we tried to elucidate the mechanism and mutual reactions of these meridian related herbs. Hot water herbal extracts were injected intraperitoneally into rats and the pressure pulse spectrum at the caudate artery was measured. The results of this study indicated that Liu-Wei-Dihuang mildly increased blood flow to meridians with lower resonance frequency: namely the liver C1, the kidney C2 and the spleen C3; but decreased blood flow to the higher resonance frequency organs and meridians: the lung C4, the stomach C5, the gall bladder C6, and the bladder C7. It also decreased the heart load C0. All of the five herb components increased blood flow to the kidney C2 and the spleen C3; but their effects on the high frequency organs varied. Alisma plantogo-aquatica var. oriental decreased the C0, C5, C6, C7; Poria cocos decreased C1, C4, C5, C6; Rehmannia glutinosa, Paeonia Suffruticosa decreased C0, C4, C5, C6, C7; Cornus officinalis increased C4 but decreased C0, C5, C6, C7.

Planta Med 1997 Aug;63(4):320-2

Antidiabetic effect of seishin-kanro-to in KK-Ay mice.

Miura T, Kako M, Ishihara E, Usami M, Yano H, Tanigawa K, Sudo K, Seino Y

Suzuka University of Medical Science and Technology, Mie, Japan.

The hypoglycemic effect of Seishin-kanro-to (SK) was investigated in KK-Ay mice, one of the non-insulin dependent diabetic mellitus types. SK (1700 mg/kg) reduced the blood glucose of KK-Ay mice from 557 +/- 17 to 383 +/- 36 mg/100 ml 7 hours after single oral administration (P < 0.001). SK also decreased the blood glucose and improved glucose tolerance 5 weeks after repeated administration in KK-Ay mice. These results support, therefore, the use of SK in patients with diabetes and confirm its role as a traditional medicine. In addition, the active plants of SK were identified as the rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge and the radix of Rehmannia glutinosa Liboschitz.

Yakugaku Zasshi 1996 Feb;116(2):158-68

[Studies on Rehmanniae radix. III. The relation between changes of constituents and improvable effects on hemorheology with the processing of roots of Rehmannia glutinosa].

[Article in Japanese]

Kubo M, Asano T, Matsuda H, Yutani S, Honda S

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kinki University, Japan.

The relation between constituents and effects on hemorheology with processing of root of Rehmannia glutinosa was investigated. With the processing to dried or steamed root from crude root, the content of stachyose, which was the highest component in crude root, was decreased and the content of manninotriose was increased. Iridoid glycoside, catalpol, was gradually decreased with the processing. From these results, the content of carbohydrates and catalpol made it possible to estimate the quality of Rehmanniae Radix by processings. On the other hand, the change of pharmacological activities with the processing was investigated. The 50% ethanolic extract (BJ-ext) from steamed root of R. glutinosa increased erythrocyte deformability and erythrocyte ATP contents, inhibited polybrene-induced erythrocyte aggregation, and promoted an activity of fibrinolytic system. The extracts from crude or dried root had weak or no effect. The crude or dried root and steamed root of R. glutinosa showed the different pharmacological activities, and the quality of Rehamanniae Radix by processings may be estimated by investigation of correlation between the changes of constituents and improvable effects of hemorheology.

Biol Pharm Bull 1996 Jan;19(1):47-52

Inhibitory effects of traditional Chinese medicine Shimotsu-to and its included crude fractions on adjuvant-induced chronic inflammation of mice.

Kojima S, Inaba K, Kobayashi S, Kimura M

Department of Chemical Pharmacology, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Japan.

Effects of a traditional Chinese medicine, Shimotsu-to (a combined prescription of cnidium rhizome, peony root, angelica root and rehmannia root), and its included crude fractions were investigated on an adjuvant-induced chronic inflammation model of mice. The aqueous extract (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg, i.p.) of Shimotsu-to reduced the carmine content, granuloma weight, inflammation cell count and pouch fluid weight in the inflammation model, respectively. The extract of Shimotsu-to without cnidium at the same doses did not produce significant changes in these four inflammatory parameters. The same doses of extracts of Shimotsu-to without peony, and without angelica, weakly reduced these parameters, except for pouch fluid weight. The extract (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg) of cnidium significantly reduced these four parameters. The same doses of peony extract reduced carmine content, granuloma weight and pouch fluid weight, but less than those of the cnidium extract. The extract of cnidium and peony at the same doses reduced in an additive manner these inflammatory parameters in their combination. These results demonstrated that the Shimotsu-to extract reduced angiogenesis, granuloma formation, inflammatory cell migration and pouch fluid exudation in the adjuvant-induced chronic inflammation model. Cnidium represented the main ingredient for producing the anti-chronic inflammatory effects of Shimotsu-to extract. Cnidium and peony exhibited additive anti-inflammatory effects in combination.

Yakugaku Zasshi 1995 Dec;115(12):992-1003

[Chemical studies on crude drug processing. X. On the constituents of rehmanniae radix (4): comparison of the constituents of various rehmanniae radixes originating in China, Korea, and Japan].

[Article in Japanese]

Kitagawa I, Fukuda Y, Taniyama T, Yoshikawa M

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Japan.

In order to characterize the chemical change of their constituents during the processing of various Rehmanniae Radixes, we have investigated the constituents by comparing with those of Chinese Juku-jio (variously processed root of Chinese Rehmannia sp.), Korean Kan-jio (dried root of Korean Rehmannia sp.) and each two species of Japanese Sho-jio (fresh root), Japanese Kan-jio (dried root), and Japanese Juku-jio (steamed root), prepared from Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. var. purpurea Makino (Akaya-jio in Japanese) and Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. forma hueichingensis Hsiao (Kaikei-jio in Japanese). It was found that, during the processing for preparing Kan-jio and Juku-jio from Sho-jio, jio-serebroside (9) and acteoside (10) were provided, and that the iridoid glycosides were completely degradated or their contents decreased remarkably. Quantitative analysis by means of gas liquid chromatography (GLC) has confirmed that the contents of monosaccharides and oligosaccharides in Kan-jio and Juku-jio increased more than those in Sho-jio. During the course of these studies, a new iridoid glycoside named 6'-O-acetylcatalpol (2) was isolated from Japanese Sho-jio and the structure has been determined.

Chung Kuo Yao Li Hsueh Pao 1995 Jul;16(4):337-40

Effects of Rehmannia glutinosa polysaccharide b on T-lymphocytes in mice bearing sarcoma 180.

Chen LZ, Feng XW, Zhou JH

Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Academy of Military Medical Science, Beijing, China.

AIM: To study immuno-antitumor action mechanism of RGP-b. RGP-b (Rehmannia glutinosa polysaccaride b) is a new component isolated from the herb, had an average molecular mass of 160 kDa and 5 kinds of monosaccharides as acid-splitting products. Its HPLC showed a main sharp peak at 162 kDa. METHODS: The kinetic effects of RGP-b on IL-2 secretion, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activities and L3T4+, lyt-2+ T-lymphocyte subset in mice bearing S180 were observed. RESULTS: RGP-b 10 or 20 mg kg-1 ip obviously attenuated the decrease of CTL cytotoxity caused by excessive tumor growth on d 9 after the administration, but only partly ameliorated the descent of IL-2. Its effect on lyt-2+ subset was quite parallel with that on CTL cytotoxity. RGP-b kept the ratio of L3T4+ to lyt-2+ subset lower than that of control. CONCLUSION: Improving the production of lyt-2+ CTL and its cytotoxity were an essential immuno-antitumor mechanisms of RGP-b.

Biol Pharm Bull 1994 Nov;17(11):1456-9

Two acidic polysaccharides having reticuloendothelial system-potentiating activity from the raw root of Rehmannia glutinosa.

Tomoda M, Miyamoto H, Shimizu N, Gonda R, Ohara N

Kyoritsu College of Pharmacy, Tokyo, Japan.

Two acidic polysaccharides, called rehmannan FS-I and rehmannan FS-II, were isolated from the raw root of Rehmannia glutinosa LIBOSCHITZ. They were homogeneous on electrophoresis and gel chromatography, and their molecular masses were estimated to be 5.8 x 10(4) and 6.6 x 10(4), respectively. Rehamannan FS-I is composed of L-arabinose: D-galactose: L-rhamnose: D-galacturonic acid: D-glucuronic acid in the molar ratio of 68:40:4:84:3; rehmannan FS-II is composed of L-arabinose: D-galactose: L-rhamnose: D-galacturonic acid in the molar ratio of 18:15:4:33, in addition to small amounts of O-acetyl groups. About two-thirds (rehmannan FS-I) and about one half (rehamannan FS-II) of the hexuronic acid residues exist as methyl esters. Methylation analysis of the carboxyl-reduced derivatives and nuclear magnetic resonance studies indicated that their structural features include mainly both arabino-3,6-galactan and rhamno-galacturonan type structural units. Both polysaccharides showed remarkable reticuloendothelial system-potentiating activity in a carbon clearance test.

Biol Pharm Bull 1994 Sep;17(9):1282-6 

Studies on rehmanniae radix. I. Effect of 50% ethanolic extract from steamed and dried rehmanniae radix on hemorheology in arthritic and thrombosic rats.

Kubo M, Asano T, Shiomoto H, Matsuda H

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kinki University, Osaka, Japan.

Effects of 50% ethanolic extract (JR-ext) from Chinese Rehmanniae Radix (the steamed and dried root of Rehmannia glutinosa, "Jyuku-Jio" in Japanese) on the hemorheology of inflammatory, thrombosic and intact animals were examined in the in vivo models. JR-ext (200 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited the reduction of fibrinolytic activity and erythrocyte deformability, the decrease in erythrocyte counts and the increase in connective tissue of the thoracic artery in a chronic inflammatory model, adjuvant-induced arthritis. However, JR-ext was ineffective on the development of edema in the arthritic rats and on acute and chronic inflammation. JR-ext inhibited the reduction of erythrocyte deformability, but not the decrease of coagulative factors in a thrombosic model, endotoxin-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). JR-ext also showed a promoting effect on erythrocyte deformability and fibrinolytic activity in intact rats. These results suggest that orally administered JR-ext can prevent an inducement of impediment in the peripheral microcirculation of various chronic diseases through the improvement of hemorheology.

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1994 Mar;42(3):625-9

Characterization of two polysaccharides having activity on the reticuloendothelial system from the root of Rehmannia glutinosa.

Tomoda M, Miyamoto H, Shimizu N, Gonda R, Ohara N

Kyoritsu College of Pharmacy, Tokyo, Japan.

Two acidic polysaccharides, called rehmannan SA and rehmannan SB, were isolated from the dried root of Rehmannia glutinosa Liboschitz. They were homogeneous on electrophoresis and gel chromatography, and their molecular masses were estimated to be 6.4 x 10(4) and 7.9 x 10(4), respectively. They were commonly composed of L-arabinose:D-galactose:L-rhamnose:D-galacturonic acid in the molar ratios of 10:10:1:1 (rehmannan SA) and 14:7:3:8 (rehmannan SB), in addition to small amounts of peptide moieties. About eighty percent (rehmannan SA) and about thirty percent (rehmannan SB) of the hexuronic acid residues exist as methyl esters. Reduction of carboxyl groups, methylation analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance and the controlled Smith degradation studies indicated the structural features of rehmannan SB, the major one in terms of the yield. It has a core structural unit of a characteristic rhamnose-rich arabino-3,6-galactan type. Both polysaccharides showed remarkable reticulo-endothelial system-potentiating activity in a carbon clearance test.

ABSTRACT:Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1994 Feb;14(2):96-8, 69-70

[Determination of hepatocyte adrenergic alpha 1 receptor and study on actions of nourishing yin and replenishing qi drugs in experimental hyperthyroid rats].

[Article in Chinese]

Shan JC

First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University of Med. Sci, Guangzhou.

In this study, hyperthyroid rat models (group 1) were established by daily intramuscular injections of thyroxine for 7 days. Group 2 were hyperthyroid rats receiving at the same time Nourishing Yin and Replenishing Qi drugs (Ophiopogonis japonis, Pseudostellariae heterophylla and Rehmannia glutinosa). Normal rats served as controls. Group 1 and group 2 rats showed manifestations of hyperthyroidism, higher rectal temperature, increased O2 consumption, as well as significantly higher serum TT3 and TT4 levels. Receptor proteins of liver cell membrane were prepared. Receptor binding assay was performed using 3H-prazosin (adrenergic alpha 1 receptor antagonist) as radioligand, maximal binding capacity (Bmax) and dissociation constant (Kd) were calculated from Scatchard curve. It was found Bmax (fmol/mg protein) in model groups were lower than that of the control group, but the differences were not statistically significant. Kd (nM) in group 1 was significantly lower than that of control group (2.32 +/- 1.09 vs 5.42 +/- 2.54, P < 0.05), indicating that receptor affinity was increased in hyperthyroid rats. Kd in group 2 (3.11 +/- 1.48) was intermediate between that in group 1 and controls, suggesting that these Chinese herbal medicine might have an effect in lowering receptor affinity and the peripheral conversion of T4 to T3.

Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1993 May;13(5):269-72, 259-60

[Clinical and experimental study on effects of man-shen-ling oral liquid in the treatment of 100 cases of chronic nephritis].

[Article in Chinese]

Su ZZ, He YY, Chen G

Worker's Hospital of the 5th Metallurgical Construction Company, Chengdu.

A new Chinese herbal preparation, Man-Shen-Ling (MSL, consisted of medicinal herbs such as Astragalus and Rehmannia) in treating 100 cases of chronic nephritis. The effective rate was 91% in comparing to 66.7% in the control group, P < 0.001. It was markedly effective for proteinuria, hematuria, improvement and recovery of renal functions, edema, anemia, anorexia etc in comparing with the control group. It showed no adverse effects on functions of liver, kidney, heart and GI tract. Animal model of chronic nephritis was established and the effects of MSL were observed. The laboratory findings and histopathological investigation on kidney revealed and confirmed that MSL has therapeutic effects on chronic nephritis. Pharmacodynamically, MSL exhibited effects of anti-allergy, its immuno-suppressive effect corresponded to that of cyclophosphamide, with diuretic, hypotensive, proteinuria eliminating, anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulatory, renal blood flow and glomerular filtration enhancing, the excretion of urea-nitrogen, potassium and sodium promoting function; in addition, it also could promote and modulate the immunity. Acute and chronic toxicity tests on animal models neither showed toxic, mutagenic, teratogenic nor carcinogenic effects. It is a new preparation of Chinese medicinal herbs in treating chronic nephritis, it is safe and effective.

Chung Hua Cheng Hsing Shao Shang Wai Ko Tsa Chih 1993 Jan;9(1):56-8, 80

[The use of Chinese traditional medicines to improve impaired immune functions in scald mice].

[Article in Chinese]

Luo ZH

Burn Research Institute, Third Military Medical College, Chongqing.

For the purpose of searching for immunomodulators, this experiment studied the effects of 6 kinds of Chinese traditional herbs on the restoration of the suppressed immune functions in scald mice, including cell-mediated, humoral and non-specific immunity. All control non-treated scald mice showed definite depression of immune functions in various degrees. Polygonum cuspidatum, Taraxacum officinale and Oidenlandia diffusa (wild) roxb showed immunomodulating effects as measured with 3 immunological parameters. But the effects varied according to the dosage of drugs. Rehmannia glutinosa gave definite improving effects on cell-mediated and non-specific immunity, but no significant effect on humoral immunity, while Gui Ling Gao only showed some effect on humoral immunity.

Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1992 Dec;12(12):734-7, 709-10

[Research on liu wei Rehmannia oral liquid against side-effect of drugs of anti-tumor chemotherapy].

[Article in Chinese]


Zhejiang Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hangzhou.

Using tumor-bearing mice as experimental animals, the survival rate, hematopoietic, heart, liver, kidney and immunological functions as indexes, Liu Wei Rehmannia Oral Liquid against the side-effect of drugs of anti-tumor chemotherapy (ADM, CTX, DDP, VCR and 5FU) were observed. The results showed that the survival rate in the treated group was significantly higher than that in control, the survival days were highly different (P < 0.01); the hemopoietic functions (HB, WBC, PL) in the treated group were higher also (P < 0.05 & P < 0.01); in the functions of heart, liver and kidney the treated group could protect the above-mentioned three organs (P < 0.01); in immune functions, the oral liquid could protect the NK and T-, B-Lymphocyte transformation, being inhibited by drugs of chemotherapy. In comparing with control group NK and T lymphocyte transformation were all significantly different (P < 0.01 & P < 0.05), while only 3 chemotherapy drugs were markedly different in B lymphocyte transformation (P < 0.05 & P < 0.01). The discussion indicated that Liu Wei Rehmannia Oral Liquid is effective in protecting the functions of hematopoiesis, immunity, heart, liver and kidney during chemotherapy, which provides an objective data for the clinical application.

Jpn J Pharmacol 1992 Dec;60(4):397-401

Antiproliferative effects of the traditional Chinese medicine shimotsu-to, its component cnidium rhizome and derived compounds on primary cultures of mouse aorta smooth muscle cells.

Kobayashi S, Mimura Y, Notoya K, Kimura I, Kimura M

Department of Chemical Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Japan.

Antiproliferative effects of the Japanese-Sino medicine Shimotsu-to (a combined prescription of cnidium rhizome, angelica root, peony root and rehmannia root) were investigated in the primary culture of smooth muscle cells (SMC) of mouse aorta. Fetal bovine serum (10%)-induced proliferation of primary cultured SMC was inhibited by Shimotsu-to at 4, 20, 100 or 500 micrograms/ml. The inhibitory effect was selective on SMC and due to cnidium rhizome or angelica root. The IC50 values of senkyunolide H, senkyunolide A, ligustilide and butylidenephthalide derived from cnidium were below 0.1, 1.52, 1.68 and 3.25 micrograms/ml, respectively. These results indicate that the antiproliferative effect of Shimotsu-to may depend on these cnidium-derived phthalides.

Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih 1992 Aug;17(8):496-9, inside backcover

[The use of 6-flavor Rehmannia decoction with additives in the prevention of ototoxic deafness induced by gentamicin in guinea pigs].

[Article in Chinese]

Zhuang J, Zhang M, Zeng Z, Xu F, Han T, Hu S, Sun Y

Shanghai College of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

The purpose of this study is to discuss the effects of the Chinese medicine six-flavor Rehmannia Decoction with additives on preventing deafness induced by gentamicin (GM) in guinea pig by means of testing the thresholds of Preyer's reflex (PR) cochlear microphonic potential (CM), action potential of the auditory nerve (N1) and scanning electron microscope of inner ear (SEM). The results showed that the medicine is effective in reducing the ototoxic effect of GM on inner ear.

Yakugaku Zasshi 1992 Jun;112(6):393-400

[Hypoglycemic activity of polysaccharide fraction from rhizome of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. f. hueichingensis Hsiao and the effect on carbohydrate metabolism in normal mouse liver].

[Article in Japanese]

Kiho T, Watanabe T, Nagai K, Ukai S

Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Japan.

The ethanol precipitate fraction (RG-WP) obtained from the hot water extract from rhizome of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. f. hueichingensis Hsiao is mainly composed of pectin-like polysaccharide, and exhibited hypoglycemic activity in normal and streptozotocin-induced mice by intraperitoneal administration of the fraction. The results obtained after chemical modification and proteinase treatments of RG-WP suggest that the activity exists in the polysaccharide moiety. Furthermore, the effect of RG-WP on the activities of enzymes responsible for the glucose metabolism in the liver of normal mouse was studied to elucidate the mechanism of the hypoglycemic activity. Administration of RG-WP to normal mice significantly increased the activities of hepatic glucokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase dehydrogenase, but decreased those of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphofructokinase. RG-WP stimulated the secretion of insulin and reduced the glycogen content in the liver of normal mouse.

Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih 1992 Jun;17(6):366-8, inside backcover

[Studies of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. f. hueichingensis as a blood tonic].

[Article in Chinese]

Yuan Y, Hou S, Lian T, Han Y

Henan College of the Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhuo.

We have studied the function of dried and prepared Rehmannia glutinosa f. hueichingensis in treating hemorrhagic anemic mice and in fostering bone marrow hematopoietic cells CFU-S, CFU-E. The results show that Rehmannia glutinosa f. hueichingensis can promote the recovery of blood deficient animals, RBC. Hb expedite the multiplication and differentiation of CFU-S, CFU-E, and thus proves markedly helpful to the generation of blood.

Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1990 May;10(5):295-7, 262

[Effect of a decoction of six ingredients with rehmannia on the periodontal tissues of animals with kidney diseases].

[Article in Chinese]

Cai J, Di Q, Zhang L

Stomatology Medical College, Bethune Medical University, Changchun.

In this paper, Kidney Yin and Yang deficiency animal models were made by the medicine (hydrocortisone, thyroxin). At the same time the occlusal trauma was accompanied. It was caused by means of corprophagy (microorganism) fed and artificial damage. The authors observed the injuries and effects of the local and systemic factors caused on the periodontal tissues of rats. From the experiment the authors found the injuries of the periodontal tissues in Kidney deficiency models were severer than those of the models without Kidney deficiency. The results showed that the function of the traditional medicine was a matter of protection, regeneration and repairing to the periodontal tissues of Kidney Yin deficiency models. In addition, the weights and activities of the experimental animals fed by Decoction of Six Ingredients with Rehmannia were higher than those without taking the traditional medicine.

Planta Med 1989 Oct;55(5):458-62

Immunosuppressive principles of Rehmannia glutinosa var. hueichingensis.

Sasaki H, Nishimura H, Morota T, Chin M, Mitsuhashi H, Komatsu Y, Maruyama H, Tu GR, Wei H, Xiong YL

Separation of the immunosuppressive principles from Rehmanniae radix was done by monitoring hemolytic plaque-forming cells (HPFC) inhibitory activity to give two new phenethyl alcohol glycosides: jionosides A1 (4) and B1 (5), along with six known compounds: acetoside, isoacteoside, purpureaside C, echinacoside, and cistanosides A and F.

J Ocul Pharmacol 1988 Winter;4(4):311-9

The evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of hachimi-jio-gan (traditional Chinese medicine) to mouse hereditary cataract.

Kamei A, Hisada T, Iwata S

Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Meijo University, Nagoya, Japan.

This study was of a series of the evaluation of Hachimi-Jio-Gan (Rehmannia Eight Formula, pa-wei-ti-huang-wan or Bawei dihuang wan) to the various cataracts. In this study, the drug was evaluated for its therapeutic efficacy to mouse hereditary cataract from the delay effect of cataract appearance age and the suppression rates of variation of some biochemical parameters. The dose of 200 mg of Hachimi-Jio-Gan/day/100 g of mouse body weight significantly delayed the cataract appearance age by 4 days as compared to that of non-treated group. We estimated that the delay effect of 4 days in mouse may be corresponded to 13.9 years, when it was converted into the case of human. This drug also suppressed variation of sodium and potassium ions level in the lens with cataractogenesis. Furthermore, the drug dramatically reactivated the sodium-potassium ATPase activity damaged with the cataract formation, and also had a slight action of reducing agent. From these facts, we presumed that the drug may have a prophylactic efficacy to the cataract caused by the inhibition of sodium-potassium ATPase activity and also the oxidation of lens protein.

J Ocul Pharmacol 1987 Fall;3(3):239-48

The evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of hachimi-jio-gan (traditional Chinese medicine) to rat galactosemic cataract.

Kamei A, Hisada T, Iwata S

Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Meijo University, Nagoya, Japan.

Hachimi-jio-gan (Rehmannia Eight Formula, pa-wei-ti-huang-wan or Bawei dihuang wan) is one of traditional Chinese medicines which has been used for treating various senile disease for a few hundred years. This drug was evaluated for its therapeutic efficacy to rat galactosemic cataract from the suppressive rate of variance of some biochemical parameters, whose variation with cataractogenesis or the advance of cataract have been reported already. The dose of 500mg of Hachimi-jio-gan/day/200g of rat body weight suppressed significantly the variations of hydration rate, Na/K ratios, and calcium ion level in the lens with the advance of galactosemic cataract, especially when the drug was administered by the pre- or concurrent-administration before or with 30% of galactose diet respectively. This drug also could delay the progressive rate of lens opacification. However, the drug had no effect to suppress the galactitol accumulation in the lens. From these results, we presume that a drug action of Hachimi-jio-gan may control the balance of sodium, potassium and calcium ions which are important in relation to the maintenance of lens transparency. Then, we realized, that this drug may have a prophylactic efficacy to diabetic cataract, though a more detail study should be needed to apply this drug to human cataract disease.


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